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Global 9 – Final Exam Review – Civilizations / Culture

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Presentation on theme: "Global 9 – Final Exam Review – Civilizations / Culture"— Presentation transcript:

1 Global 9 – Final Exam Review – Civilizations / Culture
River Valley Civilizations – First civilizations developed in river valleys with generally mild climates. Yearly floods deposited fertile soil, allowing people to grow surpluses of food. Mesopotamia: along the Tigris and Euphrates – sailboat, wheel, sundial, irrigation, earliest known legal system (Code of Hammurabi) Egypt: along the Nile – mathematics, astronomy, medicine, sculpture, architecture, hieroglyphic writing, protected by desert Indus Valley Civilization: along the Indus – Harappa & Mohenjo Daro grid planned cities, dependence on monsoons – later: beginning of Hindu religion & caste system, Sanskrit writing First Chinese Civilization: along the Huang He (Yellow River) – silk making

2 Other Ancient Civilizations
Hebrews – (Jews, Israelites) founded Judaism, spread monotheistic religion, created Israel, Bible, Ten Commandments Phoenicians – first known alphabet, founded network of trading cities such as Carthage

3 The Greeks – mountains separated the city-states which developed their own form of government and system of laws. Sparta: totalitarian organization based on military needs. The Spartans grew powerful through conquest. Athens: first democracy; citizens voted on issues of the day. Citizenship was limited to certain Athenians, and was denied to many. The Athenians grew powerful through trade. Golden Age – art, architecture, philosophy, drama, mathematics and science flourished during Athens' Golden Age (Pericles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)

4 Rome – Republic that became an empire, conquered the Mediterranean world and much of Europe. Romans adopted Greek culture and learning which preserved much of it Law: Twelve Tablets, Code of Justinian Government: Assembly and Senate which was adopted by later societies. Pax Romana (Roman Peace) ensured stability. Architecture: developed first domed structures, built stadiums, public baths, road system (Appian Way) and aqueducts (water supply) throughout their empire Punic Wars: series of three wars with Carthage in North Africa

5 Rome’s long term impacts
Codified Roman law became the basis for European law Latin language became the root of most European languages Preserved much Greek and Hellenistic learning Architecture became the model for later societies Legalized Christianity, and later it became the state religion. Established the foundations of western culture (government, literature, technology & religion)

6 Hellenistic Culture – the mixture of cultures (cultural diffusion) created by the conquests of Alexander the Great Philip of Macedonia used revolutionary battle formations, cavalry attacks & bribery to conquer and unify the divided Greek city-states. When Philip was assassinated his son Alexander became the king. Alexander the Great completed Philip’s dream of a great empire. Alexander’s empire was the largest in history up to that time. Conquests included most of the Persian Empire, to Egypt and to the Indus River


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