Presentation on theme: "Major Depressive Disorder Natalie Gomez Psychology Period 1."— Presentation transcript:
Major Depressive Disorder Natalie Gomez Psychology Period 1
Major Depressive Disorder A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings if worthlessness, a diminished interest or pleasure in most activities. When at least five signs of depression occurs for two or more weeks and are not caused by drugs or medical condition.
Associated Features Loss of energy Suicidal thoughts Overwhelmed Eating disturbances Avoiding food Trouble sleeping Might sleep less or more Trouble concentrating and cant think clear
Associated Features Types of Depression Melancholic Features- lose interest in most activities or find it difficult to react to events in in their lives that would customarily bring pleasure Seasonal Pattern- develop a depressive episode at about the same time each year, usually for about 2 months during fall or winter but later return to normal
DSM- IV- TR A. At least five of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning: at least one of the symptoms is either 1)depressed mood or 2) loss of interest or pleasure.
DSM- IV- TR 1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated either by subjective report (e.g., feels sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful) 2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated either by subjective account or observation made by others) 3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day 4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day 5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down) 6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day 7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick) 8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others) 9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or specific plan for committing suicide
DSM-IV- TR B. The symptoms do not meet criteria for a mixed episode. C. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. D. The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g. a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hypothyroidism). E. The symptoms are not better accounted for by bereavement, i.e., after the loss of a loved one, the symptoms persist for longer than 2 months or are characterized by marked functional impairment, morbid preoccupation with worthlessness, suicidal ideation, psychotic symptoms, or psychomotor retardation.
Etiology Can be influenced both biological and environmental factors. First degree relatives of people with depression have a high risk of getting major depression whether they are raised with that relative or not. Lack of support, being stressful, financial struggles, and illness in self or loved one
Prevalence 13 % of U.S adults have major depressive disorder In one given year 5.8 % men and 9.5 % women get major depression. High school students In a survey of American High School students, 29 % felt sad or hopeless almost everyday for two or more weeks and also stopped doing usual activities.
Prognosis More common in adult women. Medications can take up to 2 – 6 weeks to take action. Support from loved ones or close friends. Can develop from childhood to adulthood. Population of 68, 000, about 26% are diagnosed but only about 15% are cured completely.
References Halgin, R.P. &Whitbourne, S.K. (2005). Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill Myers, D.G. (2011). Myers’ Psychology for A.P. New York, NY: Worth Publishers Reprinted from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, 2000. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from http://alerecares.com/pl/MultiSiteIncludes/ PDF/pdfs/Depression%20Guideline%20Summary%2003- 11.pdf http://alerecares.com/pl/MultiSiteIncludes/ PDF/pdfs/Depression
Discussion Question What will your reactions be if you were to be around someone who was major depressed and was thinking about committing suicide, not eating nor sleeping or sleeping too much?