Presentation on theme: "Research Methods Irving Goffman People play parts/ roles"— Presentation transcript:
1 Research Methods Irving Goffman People play parts/ roles Behind the scens make the ?????Bad actors = ruinwe are all performares in theis play. In sociology wor areResearch Methods
2 Casual research vs. empirical research Casual research is what we do everyday as we observe our surroundings and draw conclusionsabout what we seeEmpirical Research: Structured Generalizability (representative sample). Systematic, controlled observation. Theoretical basis for method of studyCasual – we react to what we draw conclusion on – sometimes it is faulty because we need to engage in empirical research.
3 What Is The Scientific Method? A systematic series of steps that ensuresmaximum objectivity and consistency inresearching a problemThe Scientific Method:
4 Defining the Problem:State as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate.Operational Definition: An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to measure.
5 Reviewing the Literature: The relevant scholarly studies andinformation that pertains to the subjectwhat you’re interested researching.begin to talk about theoretical perspective
6 Formulating the Hypothesis: A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.Variable:A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.
7 Formulating the Hypothesis: Types of Variables:Independent:The variable that is hypothesized to cause or influence another.Dependent:The variable whose action depends on the influence of the independent variable.
8 Formulating the Hypothesis: Correlations:Exist when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another.
9 Correlations: Independent variable x Ban of assault rifles Degree of integrationinto societyParents’ church attendanceTime spent preparing for quizParents’ incomeDependent variableyUse of weapons in crimeLikelihood of suicideChildren’s church attendancePerformance on quizLikelihood of children’s enrolling in college
11 Does the difference make a difference? Hypothesis TestingIs the specified relationship statistically “significant”?What is the likelihood of the relationship occurring by chance?Can we say with some certainty that the relationship will reappear?
12 Collecting and Analyzing Data: Selecting the SampleRepresentative Samples:A selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population.Random Samples:When every member of an entire population has the same chance of being selected.
13 Collecting and Analyzing Data: Ensuring Validity and Reliability:Validity:The degree to which a measure truly reflects the phenomenon being studied.Reliability:The extent to which a measure provides consistent results.
14 Major Research Designs Surveys:A study generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire.Provides sociologists with information about how people act or think.
15 Research Methods, cont.Survey Research: data collected through questionnaires or interviews; can measure things such as attitudes or values that can not be observedAdvantages:large population can be studiedrandom, representative sample means results can be generalizedDisadvantages:can not provide in-depth information about people’s behavior or experiences
16 Research Methods, cont. What do you think the chances are these days that a white person will not get ajob or promotion while an equally or lessqualified black person gets one instead?_____ Very likely_____ Somewhat likely_____ Somewhat unlikely_____ Very unlikely_____ Don't know
17 Ethnographic Research: Interviews:High response rate.Can probe beyond questionnaire.Questionnaires:Inexpensive.Good for large samples.
18 Participant Observation: Field Research:Collecting information through directparticipation and/or observation of a group.Participant Observation:When the researcher “joins” a group for a period of time to get a sense of how it operates.
19 Field Research: Field Research (Participant and nonparticipant observation): researcher directly observes people intheir natural settingsAdvantages:provides detailed and descriptive understandings ofpeople’s everyday livesgenerally inexpensive to conductDisadvantages:time consumingdifficult to replicatedifficult to generalize to other groupsparticularly susceptible to ethical issues
20 Experiments:The artificially created situation that allows the researcher to manipulate variables.Experiments involve two types of groups:Experimental: Exposed to independent variableControl Group: Not exposed to independent variable.
21 Experiments:Experiment: the use of experimental and control groups, usually in a laboratory, to test the effect of one variable on another variableAdvantages:experimenter is able to control other variables so causal relationship can be studiedeasy to replicateDisadvantages:not a natural environmentmany sociological concepts can not be measured in a lab
22 Use of Existing Sources: Secondary Analysis:Research techniques making use of publicly accessible information and data.Content Analysis:The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.
24 American Sociological Association Code of Ethics on Sociological Research: Researchers should always maintain objectivity and integrityRespects respondents right to privacyProtect respondents from personal harmPreserve confidentialityDisclose all sources of fundingDo not abuse role as researcher