Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Research Methods Irving Goffman People play parts/ roles

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Research Methods Irving Goffman People play parts/ roles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Methods Irving Goffman People play parts/ roles
Behind the scens make the ????? Bad actors = ruin we are all performares in theis play. In sociology wor are Research Methods

2 Casual research vs. empirical research
Casual research is what we do everyday as we observe our surroundings and draw conclusions about what we see Empirical Research: Structured Generalizability (representative sample). Systematic, controlled observation. Theoretical basis for method of study Casual – we react to what we draw conclusion on – sometimes it is faulty because we need to engage in empirical research.

3 What Is The Scientific Method?
A systematic series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem The Scientific Method:

4 Defining the Problem: State as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate. Operational Definition: An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to measure.

5 Reviewing the Literature:
The relevant scholarly studies and information that pertains to the subject what you’re interested researching. begin to talk about theoretical perspective

6 Formulating the Hypothesis:
A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Variable: A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.

7 Formulating the Hypothesis:
Types of Variables: Independent: The variable that is hypothesized to cause or influence another. Dependent: The variable whose action depends on the influence of the independent variable.

8 Formulating the Hypothesis:
Correlations: Exist when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another.

9 Correlations: Independent variable x Ban of assault rifles
Degree of integration into society Parents’ church attendance Time spent preparing for quiz Parents’ income Dependent variable y Use of weapons in crime Likelihood of suicide Children’s church attendance Performance on quiz Likelihood of children’s enrolling in college

10 Correlation = Causation

11 Does the difference make a difference?
Hypothesis Testing Is the specified relationship statistically “significant”? What is the likelihood of the relationship occurring by chance? Can we say with some certainty that the relationship will reappear?

12 Collecting and Analyzing Data:
Selecting the Sample Representative Samples: A selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population. Random Samples: When every member of an entire population has the same chance of being selected.

13 Collecting and Analyzing Data:
Ensuring Validity and Reliability: Validity: The degree to which a measure truly reflects the phenomenon being studied. Reliability: The extent to which a measure provides consistent results.

14 Major Research Designs
Surveys: A study generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire. Provides sociologists with information about how people act or think.

15 Research Methods, cont. Survey Research: data collected through questionnaires or interviews; can measure things such as attitudes or values that can not be observed Advantages: large population can be studied random, representative sample means results can be generalized Disadvantages: can not provide in-depth information about people’s behavior or experiences

16 Research Methods, cont. What do you think the chances are these
days that a white person will not get a job or promotion while an equally or less qualified black person gets one instead? _____ Very likely _____ Somewhat likely _____ Somewhat unlikely _____ Very unlikely _____ Don't know

17 Ethnographic Research:
Interviews: High response rate. Can probe beyond questionnaire. Questionnaires: Inexpensive. Good for large samples.

18 Participant Observation:
Field Research: Collecting information through direct participation and/or observation of a group. Participant Observation: When the researcher “joins” a group for a period of time to get a sense of how it operates.

19 Field Research: Field Research (Participant and nonparticipant
observation): researcher directly observes people in their natural settings Advantages: provides detailed and descriptive understandings of people’s everyday lives generally inexpensive to conduct Disadvantages: time consuming difficult to replicate difficult to generalize to other groups particularly susceptible to ethical issues

20 Experiments: The artificially created situation that allows the researcher to manipulate variables. Experiments involve two types of groups: Experimental: Exposed to independent variable Control Group: Not exposed to independent variable.

21 Experiments: Experiment: the use of experimental and control groups, usually in a laboratory, to test the effect of one variable on another variable Advantages: experimenter is able to control other variables so causal relationship can be studied easy to replicate Disadvantages: not a natural environment many sociological concepts can not be measured in a lab

22 Use of Existing Sources:
Secondary Analysis: Research techniques making use of publicly accessible information and data. Content Analysis: The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.

23 Finally… Make Conclusions Report Findings

24 American Sociological Association Code of Ethics on Sociological Research:
Researchers should always maintain objectivity and integrity Respects respondents right to privacy Protect respondents from personal harm Preserve confidentiality Disclose all sources of funding Do not abuse role as researcher

Download ppt "Research Methods Irving Goffman People play parts/ roles"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google