2 Section 3: The Judicial Branch of State Government ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat is the role of the judicial branch in Georgia government?
3 Section 3: The Judicial Branch of State Government What words do I need to know?felonymisdemeanorSupreme Courtcourt of appealstrial courtsjurisdictiongrand jurytrial jury
4 Judicial Branch made up of state’s courts purpose: interpret state constitutionprotect legal rights of citizensenforce laws of the statedue process of law: courts make sure that everyone is protected from abuse by the governmentcivil cases: disputes between citizenscriminal cases: involve violation of lawsfelony: serious crime with severe punishments allowedmisdemeanor: less serious crime with smaller punishments
5 Georgia Courts Supreme Court is state’s highest court justices elected by popular vote to six-year termChief Justice is chosen by the other justicesappellate: court which reviews cases – no witnesses and juriescourt of appeals: second highest courttrial courts: hears criminal and civil casesexamples: magistrate, juvenile, state, superior, probate, municipal (city court)jurisdiction: range of action over which court can rule
6 Jury System a trial by one’s peers grand jury: determines if enough evidence exists to indict (officially charge) a persontrial jury: citizens whose duty is to determine guilt or innocence of a person charged with a crime
7 Separation of Powers each branch of government has its own powers similar to US Constitutiondesigned so that no branch or person can become too powerfulchecks and balances system depends on citizens choosing wisely when they vote
8 Section 4: Young People and the Law ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow are young people affected by the law?
9 Section 4: Young People and the Law What words do I need to know?truancyjuvenile
10 Young People and the Law Over 2,500 children in jail in Georgiajuvenile: citizen under the age of 17truancy: failure to attend schooljuveniles must follow state’s laws, but violators may be tried by a juvenile courtCommon crimes: smoking, drinking alcohol, loitering (hanging around a public place without permission), violating curfews, running away
11 Juvenile Court System every county has a juvenile court purposes: help and protect childrenensure protection of children coming under their jurisdictionprovide care for children removed from their homedelinquent act: act that would be a crime if committed by an adult (example: burglary)status offense: act that would not be a crime if committed by an adult (example: smoking)
12 Steps in Juvenile Justice Process juvenile “taken into custody”intake: intake officer evaluates casedetain or release (to parents)detained juveniles sent to RYDC (regional youth detention center)probable cause hearing before a juvenile court judgedismissal, informal adjustment, or formal hearingif the juvenile committed a serious offense or multiple offenses, a judge has many sentencing options
13 Georgia’s Seven Deadly Sins Act 1994: legislature addressed issue of increasingly violent youth crimejuveniles charged with certain crimes (murder, rape, armed robbery with a firearm) could be treated as adults by the courtssuperior courts handle these casesmandatory 10-year sentences were a part of the new law
14 Rights of Juvenilesjuveniles have the right to a fair and speedy trialno juries in juvenile casesparents or guardians may be present at hearingsattorney must be provided if child’s parents cannot afford one
15 Students’ Rights Under School Law sometimes students’ rights have been in conflict with schools’ authoritycourts have ruled that students’ civil rights are in effect at school; however, schools have been given broad power to control and manage the school environment
16 Students Responsibilities Under School Law students have a legal right to a free public educationresponsibilities of students:attend school regularly from ages 6-16follow reasonable rules and regulationswork with school officials to prevent disruption and violence which keeps students from learning and achieving