Presentation on theme: "Juvenile Justice A special category in the justice system created for youth—that is, in most U.S. jurisdictions, persons between the ages of 7 and 18."— Presentation transcript:
Juvenile Justice A special category in the justice system created for youth—that is, in most U.S. jurisdictions, persons between the ages of 7 and 18.
History of Juvenile Justice F rom a historical perspective, juvenile delinquency and a separate justice process for juveniles are recent concepts.
I n the beginning of the 19th century (the 1800’s), American cities were seeing tremendous growth, particularly because of immigration and, in later years, industrialization. The Development of Institutions for Youth
T he first specialized correctional institutions for youths in the United States. H ouses of R efuge
The Houses of Refuge H ouses of R efuge were designed to be institutions where children could be reformed and turned into hard-working members of the community. A child could be committed to a house of refuge by a constable, by a parent, or on the order of a city alderman.
T he H ouses of R efuge Children in houses of refuge engaged in a daily regimen of hard work, military drills, and enforced silence, as well as religious and academic training.
Probation Boston shoemaker John Augustus, the “father of probation,” volunteered in 1841 to provide bail for and to supervise minor offenders.
During the late 1800’s, a new groups of reformers, the child savers, began to advocate a new institution to deal with youth problems: The juvenile court. The Development of the Juvenile Court
T he L egal C ontext of the J uvenile C ourt The legal philosophy justifying state intervention in the lives of children when their parents are unable or unwilling to protect them.
J uvenile C ourt By the late 1800s, legal mechanisms for treating children differently and separately from adults were being put in place. The first juvenile court was established in 1899 in Cook County,Illinois.
Juveniles at Risk school failures dysfunctional families substance abuse mentally disordered crime committed school expulsion informal probation court involvement FORMAL probation out of home placement Juvenile Hall/detention center Prevention services: School services County social services Community Based Organizations
Please read about the case and complete 16.7 a&b Gerald Gault pg. 185
Gerald Gault case In 1964, fifteen-year-old Gerald Gault, from Arizona, was accused by a neighbor of making an obscene phone call and was arrested. After a hearing in which he was not represented by an attorney or allowed to confront his accuser, Gerald was sentenced to juvenile prison until his twenty-first birthday.
Gault outcome… In the landmark case, In re Gault (1967), the U.S. Supreme Court gave juveniles a number of due process (14 TH ammendment) protections: 1. The right against self-incrimination 2. A right to adequate notice of charges against them 3. A right to confront & cross-examine their accusers 4. The right to assistance of counsel (lawyer) 5. The right to sworn testimony and appeal
What is meant by due process? The Constitution guarantees that the government cannot take away a person's basic rights to 'life, liberty or property, without due process of law.'
Arizona case that all states must give juvenile defendants the same constitutional rights as adult criminal defendants. Gerald Gault
The police represent the primary gatekeepers to the formal juvenile justice process. The Formal Juvenile Justice Process
Typical responses of police officers handling juvenile cases are: The Police Response to Juveniles Warn and release Refer to parents Refer to a diversionary program operated by the police or another community agency Refer to court (arrest)
Comparing law Terms juvenile adult 1. Crime 2. Arrest 3. File charges 4. Not guilty plea 5. Guilty plea 6. Trial 7. Found guilty 8. Sentencing 9. Jail 10. Parole 1. (status) Offense 2. Take into custody 3. Petition 4. Denial 5. Admission 6. Adjudicatory Hearing 7. Found Delinquent 8. Disposition 9. Detention 10. Aftercare
The Formal Juvenile Justice Process 85 percent of delinquency cases referred to the juvenile courts come from police agencies. Status offenses Acts that are not crimes when committed by adults but are illegal for children (for example, truancy or running away from home).
Referring to juvenile court… Juvenile hearings never have a jury. Only in adult courts. Decided by US Supreme Court in 1971 Juvenile hearings are private and not open to the public.
Look at the Juvenile Justice Process flow chart on page 190 How many times can the juvenile case be dismissed in the process? Notice how many steps there are in this process.
As a way to get tougher on crime, the process has been made easier to transfer juveniles to adult court. Adult or Juvenile?
Page 181-183 Do prob. 16.2,16.3,16.4,16.5 Write down the 3 things that the Federal office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention recommends for an effective juvenile justice system. You be the judge…
Case studies Marquese Read about the following 4 boys, and what happened to each of them in the Juvenile Justice System. Questions to follow. Manny Shawn Jose
The Case of the 15 year old Murderer Madison Frasier Case Scenario Expressing your opinion with reasons about the perfect juvenile justices system Juvenile Sentencing