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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. AP Environmental Science Mr. Grant Lesson 67 Our Urbanizing World & Sprawl
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Objectives: Define the term sprawl. Describe the scale of urbanization Assess urban and suburban sprawl Outline city and regional planning and land use strategies. Evaluate transportation options.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sprawl: The unrestrained spread of urban or suburban development outward from a city center and across the landscape. Sometimes specified as growth in which the area of development outpaces population growth. Define the term sprawl.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Describe the scale of urbanization. The world’s population is becoming predominantly urban. The shift from rural to urban living is driven largely by industrialization and is proceeding fastest now in the developing world. Nearly all-future population growth will be in cities of the developing world. Environmental factors influence the location and growth of cities. The geography of urban areas is changing as cities decentralize and suburbs grow and expand.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Our urbanizing world Urbanization = the movement of people from rural to urban (cities and suburbs) areas -Society’s greatest change since it became sedentary People need a safe, clean, urban environment -Urban systems must be sustainable Urban populations are growing rapidly -The growing human population -More people are moving to urban areas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Industrialization causes urbanization Urbanization began for two reasons: -Farms began producing access food. - Industrial revolution spawned technology -Creating jobs and opportunities in cities -Increasing production efficiencies You need to know this
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Urbanization Developed nations have slowing urbanization. Developing nations are urbanizing rapidly -Searching for jobs, wars, ecological damage Write in your notes one megacity in a developing nation
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Factors influence the location of cities?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Things Like… Climate, Ttopography Waterways -Determine whether a small settlement becomes a large city Many well-located cities are linchpins in trading networks. How?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. How urbanization is changing Today, cities thrive in resource-poor areas -Cheap fossil fuels and powerful technologies (Dallas) -Water is brought in from distant areas (e.g., Las Vegas) -Phoenix grew 91% between 1990 and 2008 -What’s a major technology that makes life in Phoenix bearable in the summer?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. People moved to suburbs and cities suffered Why would people move to suburbs? Suburbs had more space -Economic opportunities -Cheaper real estate -Less crime -Better schools Inner cities declined
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Because… Suburbs offer - Economic opportunities -Cheaper real estate -Less crime -Better schools When people moved to suburbs Inner cities declined
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What enabled people to move to suburbs? -Automobiles and an expanding road network -Abundant, cheap oil - Jet travel, television, cell phones, the Internet allow easier communication from any area
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. So what is sprawl? Sprawl = the spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center Sprawl covers large areas of land with low-density development. What are the impacts of Sprawl? Sprawl has negative impacts involving transportation, pollution, health, land use, habitat loss, and economics.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Sprawl Transportation- More people need to drive to get somewhere when they live in suburbs. Pollution- Cars and driving create emissions. Can contribute to urban smog, acid rain, ozone destruction. Health- Sprawl promotes people being sedentary because you have to drive so much.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Sprawl Continued… Land Use- Low-density development uses more land. -Houses and roads replace 1 million ha (2.5 million acres) of U.S. land each year – 6,700 acres/day! Economics- Sprawl drains money from urban downtown centers by demanding resources like: -Road systems, sewer systems, police and fire services, telephone line.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Is there Sprawl in the area you live? Does it bother you or not? Have this answer in your notes. I will check at the end of class Exit Ticket!
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. People in suburbs take up lots of space
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Several types of development lead to sprawl
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. So how do people deal with the effects of sprawl? Through city and regional planning With zoning With urban growth boundaries With smart growth
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is City Planning? City planning = designing cities to maximize their efficiency, functionality, and beauty -City planners help control development -Address transportation needs -Create public parks -Improve neighborhood living conditions -Streamline traffic
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Washington, D.C. was a planned city Pierre Charles L’Enfant’s 1791 plan called for splendid diagonal avenues, monuments, a spacious, stately feeling
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is regional planning? Regional planning = deals with same issues as city planning, but with -Has broader geographic scales - Must coordinate with multiple municipal governments Regional planning brings together: -Urban and rural residents -Homeowners, farmers, developers, and governments coordinate on what future land uses will be
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is Zoning? Remember all these terms are way people deal with SPRAWL!! Zoning = organizes areas for different types of development and land use Zoning involves government restriction on the use of private land Do you think people have issues with this?
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Issues with Zoning Do you think people have issues with zoning? Proponents say government can set limits for the good of the community
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Proponents say government can set limits for the good of the community. Zoning maintains tranquility of neighborhoods. Gives property owners some security knowing certain developments can and cannot be located nearby.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Opponents of zoning Say government is restricting what people can do on their private land. This represents a “top-down” constraint on personal property rights Some even consider it a “regulatory taking” that violates individual freedoms.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Urban growth boundaries (UGBs) Limit sprawl: keeps growth in existing urbanized areas -Revitalize downtowns -Protect farms, forests, and industries Disadvantages: -Increase housing prices within their boundaries - Increase the density of new housing inside the UGB
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Other states, regions, and cities have adopted UGBs -Boulder, Colorado; many California areas -Trying to concentrate development, prevent sprawl, and preserve farmland and habitat Many cities have urban growth boundaries Oregon’s long-term goal was to prevent growth of a megalopolis stretching from Eugene to Seattle
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Oregon’s long- term goal was to prevent growth of a megalopolis stretching from Eugene to Seattle
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Smart growth tries to counter sprawl Smart growth = urban growth boundaries and other land use policies to control sprawl Proponents of smart growth promote: -Healthy neighborhoods and communities -Jobs and economic development -Transportation options -Environmental quality Building “up, not out” -Focusing development in existing areas -Favoring multistory shop-houses and high-rises
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. New urbanism is now in vogue New urbanism = neighborhoods are designed on a walkable scale -Homes, businesses, and schools are close together Functional neighborhoods in which most of a family’s needs can be met without using a car New urbanist developments have green spaces, mixed architecture, creative street layouts
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Vocab to know: -light pollution -Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design -new urbanism -transit-oriented development -urban ecology -urban growth boundary (UBG) -regional planning -urban heat island effect Please create cards for each one of these words.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Evaluate transportation options. Mass transit systems can enhance the efficiency and sustainability of urban areas. The United States lags behind other nations in mass transit, but as population and demand increase, new efforts are being made.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Transit-oriented development Transit-oriented development = compact communities in the new urbanist style -Are arrayed around stops on a major rail transit line -People can travel by train and foot Zoning rules must cooperate with new urbanism -Denser development must be allowed so sprawl is prevented
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Mass transportation Traffic jams cause air pollution, stress, and lost time -Cost the U.S. economy $74 billion/year Key in improving quality of urban life: mass transportation -Buses, trains, subways -Light rail = smaller systems powered by electricity Cheaper, more energy efficient, and cleaner Traffic congestion is eased
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Train and bus systems The most-used U.S. train systems are in large cities -Carry 25% of each city’s daily commuters -New York’s subways, the T in Boston Portland’s buses carry 66 million/year -Each bus keeps 250 cars off the road each day
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. U.S. mass transit lags behind other nations Most nations have extensive, accessible bus systems -The U.S. lags behind in mass transit systems Other nations have high-speed bullet trains -The U.S. starves its only national passenger trains (Amtrak) of funding Why is U.S. mass transit behind? -Low population density and cheap fuel support roads and cars -In 2009, Congress set aside $8 billion for high- speed rail
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Establishing mass transport is not easy It is expensive to replace existing roads Strong, visionary political leadership is needed -Growth is directed, instead of being overwhelming Governments can encourage mass transit -Raise fuel taxes -Tax inefficient modes of transport -Reward carpoolers -Encourage bicycle use and bus ridership -Charge trucks for road damage -Stimulate investment in renewed urban centers
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Slides prepared by Jay Withgott and Heidi Marcum Copyright © 2008.
Applying any three of the basic principles of smart growth, explain how the private land surrounding federally owned property might be developed.
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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 13_00CO.JPG Ch. 13 Urbanization.
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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Urbanization and Sustainable Growth.
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