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1 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-1 Equations and Inequalities Chapter 2

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2 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-2 2.1 – Solving Linear Equations 2.2 – Problem Solving and Using Formulas 2.3 – Applications of Algebra 2.4 – Additional Application Problems 2.5 – Solving Linear Inequalities 2.6 – Solving Equations and Inequalities Containing Absolute Values Chapter Sections

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3 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-3 § 2.1 Solving Linear Equations

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4 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-4 Properties of Equality For all real numbers a, b,,and c: 1. a = a Reflexive property 2. If a = b, then b = a Symmetric property 3. If a = b, and b = c, then a = c Transitive property

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5 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-5 Like terms are terms that have the same variables with the same exponents. Like Terms -3x, 8x, - x 6w 2, -12w 2, w 2 Unlike Terms 20x, x 2, x 3 6xy, 2xyz, w 2 Combine Like Terms

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6 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-6 Combining Like Terms 1.Determine which terms are like terms. 2.Add or subtract the coefficients of the like terms. 3.Multiply the number found in step 2 by the common variable(s). Example: 5a + 7a = 12a

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7 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-7 Distributive Property For any real numbers a, b, and c, a(b + c) = ab + bc Example: 3(x + 5) = 3x + 15 (This is not equal to 18x! These are not like terms.)

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8 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-8 Simplifying an Expression 1.Use the distributive property to remove any parentheses. 2.Combine like terms. Example: Simplify 3(x + y) + 2y = 3x + 3y + 2y (Distributive Property) = 3x + 5y(Combine Like Terms) (Remember that 3x + 5y cannot be combined because they are not like terms.)

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9 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-9 Solve Linear Equations A linear equation in one variable is an equation that can be written in the form ax + b = c where a, b, and c are real numbers and a 0. The solution to an equation is the number that when substituted for the variable makes the equation a true statement.

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10 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-10 Example: Solve the equation x – 4 = -10. x – 4 = -10 x – 4 + 4 = -10 + 4 (Add 4 to both sides.) x = -6 Check: (-6) – 4 = -10 Addition Property of Equality If a = b, then a + c = b + c for any real numbers a, b, and c.

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11 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-11 Multiplication Property of Equality If a = b, then a · c = b · c for any real numbers a, b, and c. Example: Solve the equation 12y = 15. ·12y = 15 · (Multiply both sides by ) 4 5 1 1

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12 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-12 (Multiply both sides by -4) Example: Solve the equation. (Simplify) x = -3Check: Multiplication Property of Equality

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13 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-13 Solve Linear Equations 1.Clear fractions. If the equation contains fractions, eliminate the fractions by multiplying both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. 2.Simplify each side separately. Simplify each side of the equation as much as possible. Use the distributive property to clear parentheses and combine like terms as needed. 3.Isolate the variable term on one side. Use the addition property to get all terms with the variable on one side of the equation and all constant terms on the other side. It may be necessary to use the addition property a number of times to accomplish this.

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14 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-14 Solve Linear Equations 4.Solve for the variable. Use the multiplication property to get the variable (with a coefficient of 1) on one side. 5.Check. Check by substituting the value obtained in step 4 back into the original equation.

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15 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-15 Solving Equations Example: Solve the equation 2x + 9 = 14. Don’t forget to check!

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16 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-16 Solve Equations Containing Fractions Example: Solve the equation The least common denominator is 3.

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17 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-17 Identify Conditional Equations, Contradictions, and Identities Conditional Equations: Equations that true for only specific values of the variable. Contradictions: Equations that are never true and have no solution. Identities: Equations that are always true and have an infinite number of solutions.

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18 Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2-18 Solving Equations with Decimals Example: Determine whether the equation 5(a - 3) – 3(a – 6) = 2(a + 1) + 1 is a conditional equation, a contradiction, or an identity. Since we obtain the same expression on both sides of the equation, it is an identity.

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