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AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 1 Predicting Weather and Climate: Scientific progress and future opportunities Alan Thorpe AMS Presidential Forum
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 2 What has it taken to realise Vilhelm Bjerknes’ 1904 vision? SCIENTIFIC and TECHNICAL INNOVATION: P P redictability theory R R epresent physical processes E E valuate forecast reliability D D ata assimilation & observations I I nternational collaboration C C omputational power T T alented scientists
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 3 Sources of predictability days seasons years months decades
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 4 Sources of unpredictability Forecast lead time (days) RMS error (m) 1990 2000 2010 Average medium-range forecast error growth Initial condition uncertainty
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 5 ~210km ~125km ~63km ~39km ~25km ~16km Evolution of ECMWF forecast skill
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 6
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 7 Research and development frontiers High resolution: accuracy of initial conditions and the model; fidelity of weather systems n.b., effective resolution ~ 8x mesh size Identify sources of predictability: coupling to models of ocean, land, sea-ice, biosphere etc Extend period of skill for high- impact weather out to day 7: ensemble of data assimilations to assess “errors of the day” Day 7 persistence HRES
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 8 Research and development frontiers Month 1 - regimes Extending skill to weeks 2, 3 and 4: e.g., regimes and regime transitions Predicting a season ahead in the extra-tropics: identifying space and time-dependent predictability Seamless prediction: focus on predicting weather and climate extremes Extreme rainfall in UK “increasing” News : 3 January 2013 Extreme forecast index: rainfall Genoa flood
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 9 Super-seamless: environmental prediction Aerosol UV index Air quality: NO 2 Global pollution: CO Flux inversions: CO 2 Ozone Ash Fire and smoke
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 10 International collaboration Global Atmospheric Research Program: 1967 - 1982 ICSU, WMO, IPCC and Belmont Forum WWRP: THORPEX Legacy post 2014 Subseasonal-to-Seasonal Polar Prediction Project High-impact weather prediction Linking WCRP and WWRP on seamless prediction ECMWF: extended TIGGE archive World Weather Open Science Conference: 17 – 23 August 2014, Montreal
AMS Presidential Forum January 2013© ECMWF Slide 11 Predicting Weather and Climate: Scientific progress and future opportunities Alan Thorpe AMS Presidential Forum Reduce and Quantify Uncertainties = Accuracy and Reliability
WMO 1 CAS Technical Conference (18-19) and CAS-16 (20-26) November 2013 Antalya T. Nakazawa RES/ARE.
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Ensemble Forecasting of High-Impact Weather Richard Swinbank with thanks to various, mainly Met Office, colleagues High-Impact Weather THORPEX follow-on.
WCRP polar climate predictability initiative Vladimir Ryabinin
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World Climate Research Programme Climate Information for Decision Making Ghassem R. Asrar Director, WCRP.
Global Framework for Climate Services 1 World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water ER 2: Enhanced capacities of Members.
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