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Physical and Mental Illness

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Presentation on theme: "Physical and Mental Illness"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical and Mental Illness
Chapter 10 Medical Care: Physical and Mental Illness

2 The Problem In Sociological Perspective
Not just biology Social component Industrialization and lifestyle Greater affluence Iatrogenesis Illness caused by medical care staff Changing ideas about health and illness

3 The Social Organization of Medicine as a Social Problem
An explosion in medical costs Reasons for the explosion in costs

4 Medicine for profit: a two-tier system of medical care
Medicine for profit is also known as a fee-for-service system. Two-tier system of medical care: one for those who can afford insurance another for those who cannot


6 Medicine for profit: cesarean delivery
Why have cesarean births increased? Profit Convenience Technology Preference A Feminist Controversy Central issue is the relative power of women


8 Physical Illness as a Social Problem
Life expectancy and infant mortality Determines how healthy or ill a society is as a whole. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) Number of babies who die before 1 year of age, per 1,000 live births Lifestyle Heroic an Preventive Medicine Quick care: Emergency Rooms and Drugstores Uneven Distribution of Doctors



11 Mental Illness as a Social Problem
Measuring mental illness The social nature of mental illness How we define mental illness is a matter of dispute

12 A two-tier system of mental health delivery
the illness the medical delivery system Deinstitutionalization The release of hospitalized mental patients into the community

13 Symbolic Interactionism
Determining the meaning of symptoms and behavior People from different backgrounds interpret health & illness differently The significance of definitions Views and meanings of health and illness change Conflicting Referral Networks Depersonalization

14 Functionalism Customs or social institutions fulfills social needs.
Free-for-Service Means Profits It is difficult for doctors to make money if people are not sick A self-correcting system


16 Conflict Theory Argues that the U.S. medical system is not self-correcting. The poor are more often sick—they lack sufficient income and high-quality education, food, housing, jobs, and medical services

17 Colliding Interests of Doctors and Patients
Medicaid Colliding Interests of Doctors and Patients Doctors represent the dominant class Patients are the subordinate class Women’s Reproductive Organs Hysterectomies

18 An Overview of Physical Health Problems
Historical changes in health problems 6 of the 10 leading causes of death have remained the same according to Figure 10-9. Several of the top killers in both centuries are caused primarily by lifestyle and environmental pollution.


20 Infectious diseases The decline in infectious diseases
Stronger immunities, clean water, better food The resurgence of infectious diseases Develop new strains that are resistant

21 How Disease Is Related to Behavior and Environment: the Case of HIV/Aids
Background Example of the relationship between behavior, environment, and disease The disease no longer discriminates A global epidemic 30 million people have died 33 million people around the world are infected now 3 million more people are being infected each year

22 HIV/Aids in the United States
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) Halt the progression of AIDS Combination of ARVs and education caused AIDS deaths in the U.S. to decrease Race/ethnicity—higher rates of HIV/AIDS Ominous changes HIV virus mutates rapidly . 22


24 Social Inequalities in Physical Illness
Poverty and health Economic factors largely determine who will be healthy and who will be sick Occupational health hazards lower-class working environments Reducing Inequalities: Health Care Reform

25 Social Inequalities in Mental Illness
Social class and mental illness People’s emotional well-being declines with decreases in social class. Four explanations for the greater emotional problems of the poor: The Drift Hypothesis The Genetic Hypothesis The Socialization Hypothesis The Environmental Hypothesis


27 Social Class Differences in Mental Health Care
Different types of therapies Consequences of ability to pay Type of therapy tied to a person’s ability to pay, not illness Talk therapy Pharmaceutical straitjacket 27


29 Prepaid Medical Care: The Example of Managed Care
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) The positive side Profits and a conflict of interest

30 Physician Assistants Training Physicians Home health care
Strategy for controlling costs Training Physicians Medical schools graduate about 16,000 physicians a year. Home health care Less expensive and often more humane Preventative Medicine

31 Domiciliary Care Home health care, or domiciliary care
Treatment given within a patient’s home Less expensive and often more humane May involve profiteering Another approach: create domiciliary programs for mentally ill

32 Preventive Medicine Preventable deaths
Three types of preventive medicine: Primary prevention Secondary prevention Tertiary prevention Food and health Proper nutrition and exercise Immunizations Preventing drug abuse and homicide Eating ourselves to death

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