Presentation on theme: "Text Structures Non-Fiction material is usually organized in a particular text structure. Four commonly used structures are: Cause and Effect Chronological."— Presentation transcript:
Text Structures Non-Fiction material is usually organized in a particular text structure. Four commonly used structures are: Cause and Effect Chronological Order Comparison and Contrast Problem and Solution
Cause and Effect Is a relationship between two or more events in which one event brings about another. The event that happens first is the cause; the one that follows is the effect. Signal Words: sincebecauseas a result so thereforedue to
Cause and Effect Example In 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act required colonists to buy stamps and place them on newspapers, diplomas, and legal papers. The angry colonists protested, claiming they were being taxed without being represented. As a result, the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766.
Chronological Order Is the arrangement of details in time order. This means the writer explains an event, experience, or series of steps in the order in which they actually occurred. Signal Words: firstnextafter that thenfinallydirections words
Chronological Order Example Cowhands appeared in America as early as 1640 when they first drove cattle across Massachusetts from Springfield to Boston. A hundred years later, they had spread south to the Carolinas. The railroad era saw an additional increase in the number of cowboys. Then, in 1863, the Homestead Act was passed. With barbed wire fences everywhere, cattle drives were stopped. By 1885, most cowboys had disappeared.
Comparison and Contrast Comparison involves pointing out what two or more things have in common. Contrast involves pointing out differences. Signal Words: bothsimilarsame different in contrast
Comparison and Contrast Example In the American War for Independence, a victory for either side was possible. The British were better trained than colonists. The English fleet outnumbered the American ships. Britain also had cash and credit to support its troops. However, the colonists did not need to send supplies overseas. Also, the colonists were more familiar with the terrain than the British were. Both sides had advantages.
Problem and Solution In problem and solution writing, the author identifies and describes a problem and then offers one or more possible solutions. Signal Words: consequentlyconflictanswer in efforts toresolved
Problem and Solution Example Several students receive poor grades on writing assignments, not because they lack the ability to communicate, but because they can not seem to manage their time when it comes to a large project. They do not know where to begin, and therefore put things off until the last minute. To solve this problem, students need to develop a timeline for completing the project. If they divide the assignment into manageable chunks or parts and then set a schedule for completing each part, they will be able to finish the entire project before the deadline.