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Shampooing, Rinsing, and Conditioning

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1 Shampooing, Rinsing, and Conditioning
Cosmetology: Shampooing, Rinsing, and Conditioning Milady’s Standard Cosmetology

2 “Ability is what you’re capable of doing
“Ability is what you’re capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it” Lou Holtz

3 Objectives Explain pH and its importance in shampoo selection
Explain the role of surfactants in shampoo Discuss the uses and benefits of various types of shampoos and conditioners

4 Objectives Perform proper scalp manipulations as part of a shampoo service Demonstrate proper shampoo and conditioning procedures LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?) Clients of the cosmetology profession knowingly and willingly invite the cosmetologist to invade their personal “comfort zone” on a regular basis. They place a great deal of confidence and trust in the cosmetologist when doing so. Therefore, it is extremely important never to betray that trust. The ability to provide a thorough and relaxing shampoo is essential to salon success. A good shampoo lays the foundation for a solid client relationship and prepares the hair for the service you are about to provide. The client may use this initial experience to evaluate the professional expertise of the stylists. If clients enjoy the shampoo, they have much more confidence in the stylist’s ability and may request even more services as a result. Although shampooing is given primarily to cleanse the hair and scalp, it should be a pleasurable and relaxing experience that will ensure return visits to the salon by the client. Proper scalp and hair analysis is important to determine what type of shampoo and frequency shampooing is needed. An unclean scalp and dirty hair offer a breeding place for disease-producing bacteria, which can lead to scalp disorders. In addition, the comfort and protection of the client must always be considered when giving any professional service. It is essential that the skin and clothing of the client be protected. These procedures further enhance the client’s confidence in your abilities as a professional. In fact, history proves that clients will return to a professional who has made them comfortable and who has treated them well even if they were not 100% satisfied with the results of the service. Thus, the safety and comfort of your clients combined with a thorough and relaxing shampoo can be enormously beneficial in building your business.

5 Shampooing Purpose: To cleanse the hair and scalp Hair types
Dry, oily, normal, chemically treated Hair condition Chemically treated, overprocessed, damaged Home maintenance Proper products enhance your services; improper products diminish your services UNDERSTANDING SHAMPOO PURPOSE: To cleanse the hair and scalp before receiving a service. DEFINITION: To subject the scalp and hair to cleaning and massaging with some cleansing agent such as soap or detergent OR with a product formulated for cleansing the hair and scalp. The term comes from the Hindi language meaning “to cleanse.” SHAMPOO SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Hair type. Dry, oily, normal, chemically treated. Hair condition. Overprocessing, chemically treated, damaged by harsh products or improper care, exposure to the elements. Home maintenance. Inappropriate products used at home can diminish the quality service you have provided.

6 The pH Scale Acid: 0 – 6.9 Neutral: 7.0 Alkaline: 7.1 – 14
Litmus paper test THE pH SCALE: The amount of hydrogen in a solution is measured on a logarithmic scale ranging from 0 to 14. Acid - 0 to 6.9 pH Neutral - 7.0 Alkaline 7.1 to 14. The higher the alkalinity, the stronger and harsher the shampoo, which can leave the hair dry and brittle. History of pH-balanced shampoos. In the 1960s, Jheri Redding founded Redken, Jhirmack, Nexxus, and Jheri Redding Products. He marketed the first pH-balanced shampoos. The litmus paper test was key in his marketing strategies.

7 The Chemistry of Water Purification Soft water Hard water
Sedimentation Filtration Chlorine Boiling Distillation Soft water Hard water THE CHEMISTRY OF WATER: Water is the universal solvent, meaning it is capable of dissolving more substances than any other solvent. Purification. Fresh water from lakes and streams must be purified for domestic use. Sedimentation. A treatment that causes matter to sink to the bottom. Filtration. Passing through a porous substance, such as filter paper or charcoal. The process removes suspended clay, sand, and organic material. Chlorine added. Small amounts are added to kill bacteria. Boiling. 212 degrees Fahrenheit or 100 degrees Celsius. Destroys microbes. Distillation. The process of heating water so it becomes a vapor, then condensing the vapor so that it collects as a liquid. This process is used frequently in the manufacture of cosmetics. Soft water. Rain water or chemically softened water. It contains small amounts of minerals and allows soap and shampoo to lather freely. Hard water. Contains minerals that lessen the ability of soap or shampoo to lather readily. Can be softened by a chemical process. ACTIVITY: Ask students to share their experiences with hard and soft water. For example, ask them if they have ever taken a shower in extremely softened water. Perhaps they have experienced that feeling of never being able to get the soap off or the shampoo out of their hair. Or conversely, maybe they have showered in water so hard, they couldn’t seem to get it to lather at all.

8 The Chemistry of Shampoos
Surfactant molecule (surface active agent) Hydrophilic end Lipophilic end THE CHEMISTRY OF SHAMPOOS: An understanding of the chemical ingredients used in shampoos will help you prescribe the best product for your clients. WATER: The main ingredient, but purified or deionized. Water is usually listed first on product labels because it represents the largest percentage of all ingredients. All others are listed in descending order. SURFACTANT MOLECULE: Surfactant and detergent are synonymous, meaning cleansing or “surface active” agent. Hydrophilic end. This is the “head” end of a shampoo molecule and is “water-attracting.” Lipophilic end. This is the “tail” end of a shampoo molecule and is “oil-attracting.” Since both ends are working during a shampoo, a push-pull effect is created that causes the oils, dirt, and deposits to form little balls that can be lifted off in the water and rinsed from the hair. See Figures 13-3 through 13-6.

9 Types of Shampoos Acid-balanced Conditioning Medicated Clarifying
TYPES OF SHAMPOO: Shampoo products represent the highest dollar expenditure in hair care products. Acid-balanced: Has a pH the same as hair of 4.5 to By adding citric, lactic, or phosphoric acid to any shampoo, it can become acid-balanced. Some believe that a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 is essential to prevent excessive dryness and hair damage. The Consumer’s Union chemists believe a pH between 5 and 8 is too small to affect the hair and scalp due to the limited time of actual application. Conditioning. Or moisturizing shampoos are designed to make hair smooth and shiny, improve manageability, and avoid damage to chemically treated hair. Protein and biotin are conditioning agents that restore moisture and elasticity, strengthen the hair shaft, and add volume. They are also nonstripping. Medicated. Reduce dandruff or relieve scalp conditions. Some require a prescription. Clarifying. Contain an acidic ingredient like cider vinegar to cut through product buildup. They increase shine. These shouldn’t be used regularly, but as needed.

10 Types of Shampoos Balancing Dry or powder Color-enhancing
For hairpieces and wigs Balancing. Wash away excess oiliness while keeping hair from drying out. Dry or powder. Used when client’s health prevents a wet shampoo. It cleanses without the use of soap and water. Powder picks up dirt and oils as you brush or comb through the hair. Color-enhancing. The shampoo surfactant is combined with basic dyes. Similar to temporary rinses; removed with plain shampooing; used to brighten, to add some slight color, and to eliminate unwanted color tones. For hairpieces and wigs. Special solutions are formulated for these. See Chapter 17. SHAMPOO AND RETAILING: Use the shampoo time to better establish your professional relationship with the client and promote quality products for at-home use.

11 Conditioners Deposit protein and moisturizer
Restore strength and give body Protect against breakage Types Rinse out Treatment or repair Leave in CONDITIONERS: Special chemical agents applied to the hair to deposit protein or moisturizer, to help restore its strength and give it body, or to protect against possible breakage. They are a temporary “fix” and cannot “heal” damaged hair or improve the quality of new hair growth. Remember: heredity, health, and diet control the texture and structure of hair. RECONSTRUCTOR TYPES Rinse-out. These are also called finishing or cream rinses that are worked through the hair for detangling. Treatment or repair. Deep, penetrating conditioners that are left on hair for 10 to 20 minutes, restoring protein and moisture. Heat may increase penetration. Leave-in. These are applied and not rinsed out.

12 Formulation Silicone and moisture-binding humectants Emollients
Synthetic polymers Proteins FORMULATION Silicone and moisture-binding humectants. These substances absorb moisture or promote the retention of moisture. Emollients. Reduce frizz. Synthetic polymers. Bulk up the hair. Proteins. Penetrate the cortex and reinforce the hair shaft from within. AVOID BUILDUP: Overuse can make hair heavy and oily, leading to more shampooing, which can strip the hair shaft of its protective oils, etc.

13 Conditioning Effects Smooth cuticle Penetrate the cortex Moisturize
Smooth the cuticle Penetrate the cortex. The cortex makes up 90% of the hair strand and can be penetrated with protein conditioners to reconstruct the hair. Moisturize. Moisturizing conditioners contain humectants that attract moisture from the air and are absorbed into the cortex.

14 Product Types Instant conditioners Moisturizers Protein conditioners
Deep conditioning treatments PRODUCT TYPES Instant conditioners. Remain on the hair for 1 to 5 minutes or are “leave-in.” Contain humectants to improve the appearance of dry, brittle hair. Also contain an acid to balance the alkalinity of a prior chemical service. Moisturizers. Have a longer application time of 10 to 20 minutes. Ingredients are formulated to be more penetrating and have longer staying power. Some require heat application. Quats are used to increase the ability to attach to hair fibers and provide longer-lasting protection. Protein conditioners. Slightly increase hair diameter and add body to hair. Available in several strengths. Used to improve hair strength and temporarily close split ends. They improve appearance, equalize porosity, and increase elasticity. See Fig 13-7. Deep conditioning treatments. Also known as hair masks or conditioning packs. Chemical mixtures of concentrated protein in a heavy cream base of a moisturizer. They penetrate several cuticle layers; chosen when an equal degree of moisturizing and protein treatment is required.

15 Other Conditioning Agents
Spray-on thermal protectors Scalp conditioners Medicated scalp lotions Scalp astringent lotions OTHER CONDITIONING AGENTS Spray-on thermal protectors. Applied before thermal service. Scalp conditioners. Usually a cream base used to soften and improve scalp health. Medicated scalp lotions. Promote healing of the scalp. Scalp astringent lotions. Used to remove oil accumulation from scalp; used after a scalp treatment and before styling. ACTIVITY: Have students refer to Table 13-1 found in their textbook. Conduct a discussion among the entire class of the three hair types and textures listed and the various recommended treatments.

16 General Rules of Brushing
Brush with every shampoo except with chemical service or if scalp is irritated Don’t brush scalp Don’t use comb to loosen scales on scalp BRUSHING THE HAIR: Correct brushing stimulates the blood circulation; helps remove dust, dirt, and hair spray buildup; gives added shine. GENERAL RULES: Do as part of every shampoo. The following exceptions apply: Don’t do before chemical service. Don’t do if scalp is irritated. Don’t brush the scalp. Never use comb to loosen scales from the scalp. Natural bristle brushes are recommended to clean and add luster to hair. Nylon bristles are shiny, smooth, and fine for styling. See Figure 13-8.

17 Brushing Procedure Make center part
Section ½” off center part to crown Hold strand in non dominant hand Use dominant hand and lay brush close to scalp Rotate brush from scalp to ends Take another ½” parting and continue brushing BRUSHING PROCEDURE Make center part from front to nape. Section ½” off center part to the crown of head. Hold strand of hair in nondominant hand between thumb and fingers. With dominant hand, lay brush with bristles close to scalp. See figure 13-9. Rotate brush from scalp to ends. Repeat three times. Part hair again ½” from first parting and continue brushing procedure until entire head has been brushed.

18 Shampooing Implements
Towels Shampoo cape and neck strip Shampoo Conditioner Comb and hairbrush SHAMPOOING: Maintain good posture during shampooing to protect against muscle aches, back strain, discomfort, fatigue. Also helps maintain an attractive image. Keep shoulders back, hold abdomen in. See Figures and IMPLEMENTS NEEDED • Towels • Shampoo cape • Shampoo • Conditioner (optional) • Comb and hairbrush

19 Scalp Manipulations Give weekly for normal scalp
Give more frequently if disorders are present Perform prior to shampoo Use continuous even motion Use to stimulate scalp and soothe tension SCALP MANIPULATION TECHNIQUE: Two basic requisites for a healthy scalp are cleanliness and stimulation. Give weekly for normal scalp and more often when disorders are present (in conjunction with treatment by a dermatologist). Perform prior to shampoo. Learn to give with continuous, even motion, which will stimulate scalp and/or soothe client’s tension.

20 Manipulations Procedure
Relaxing movement Sliding movement Sliding and rotating movement Forehead movement NOTE: Hand out LP 13.0, H - 1 for students to follow during presentation. DEMONSTRATE procedure and have students return the demonstration if a practical class. Routines may vary. Place hands under hair so length of fingers, balls of fingertips, and cushions of palms can stimulate muscles, nerves, and blood vessels of scalp area. ACTIVITY: Have students practice one or more of the scalp manipulations on each other during class.

21 Manipulations Procedure
Scalp movement Hairline movement Front scalp movement Back scalp movement

22 Manipulations Procedure
Ear-to-ear movement Back movement Shoulder movement Spine movement

23 Shampoo Preparation Procedure
Seat client Perform consultation Sanitize hands Drape client Place cape SHAMPOO/CONDITIONING PROCEDURE: NOTE: Hand out LP 13.0, H - 2, which is the procedure sheet for a standard shampoo procedure with conditioner. Have students follow along with you while you present and then demonstrate the procedure. See Figures through SHAMPOOING CHEMICALLY TREATED HAIR Use mild shampoo. Detangle by combing gently from nape to frontal area. Do not force comb through hair. Use conditioner if necessary.

24 Shampoo Preparation Procedure
Place towel Remove objects from hair Remove jewelry Analyze scalp Brush hair Massage scalp

25 Shampoo Procedure Seat client Place cape Adjust water Saturate hair
Apply shampoo Manipulate scalp Rinse hair thoroughly

26 Shampoo Procedure Shampoo again if needed
Gently squeeze excess water from hair Condition as needed Place plastic cap on head Partially towel dry hair Clean shampoo bowl Comb client’s hair Change drape

27 Clean Up Discard used materials Dispose of soiled towels
Remove hair from combs and brushes Sanitize shampoo bowl Wash hands

28 Applying Dry Shampoos Seat client Drape for chemical service
Follow product directions APPLYING DRY SHAMPOOS Seat client comfortably at station. Drape for chemical service. Follow product directions. For most products, apply the powder directly onto hair from scalp to ends and brush through with a natural bristle brush. See Figure SHAMPOOING FOR SPECIAL NEEDS: Consult with the clients about their special needs, ask their preferences, and keep their comfort and safety a priority.

29 Normal Hair and Scalp Treatments
Drape client Brush hair for 5 minutes Apply scalp conditioner Apply heat for 5 minutes Manipulate scalp for 10 – 20 minutes Shampoo hair GENERAL HAIR AND SCALP TREATMENTS: Purpose. To keep scalp and hair in a clean and healthy condition. Performed after thorough scalp examination. NORMAL HAIR AND SCALP TREATMENT. NOTE: Hand out LP 13.0, H - 3 and have students follow along procedure sheet as you review and demonstrate the procedure.

30 Normal Hair and Scalp Treatments
Towel dry hair Apply scalp lotion and/or styling aids Drape client, brush hair Apply preparation

31 Dry Hair and Scalp Treatments
Apply steamer Shampoo hair, towel dry Apply scalp cream Stimulate scalp Rinse hair DRY HAIR AND SCALP TREATMENTS: NOTE: Hand out LP 13.0, H - 3 and have students follow along procedure sheet as you review and demonstrate the procedure. DO NOT USE HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENT ON HAIR TREATED WITH TONICS OR LOTIONS THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL. ANTIDANDRUFF TREATMENT: NOTE: Hand out LP 13.0, H - 3 and have students follow along procedure sheet as you review and demonstrate the procedure.

32 Oily Hair and Scalp Treatments
Drape client and brush hair Apply scalp lotion Apply lamp or heat Manipulate scalp Shampoo hair and towel dry Apply current Apply astringent OILY HAIR AND SCALP TREATMENTS: NOTE: Hand out LP 13.0, H - 3 and have students follow along procedure sheet as you review and demonstrate the procedure.

33 Antidandruff Treatments
Drape client Shampoo with antidandruff shampoo Towel dry hair Apply conditioner Apply heat or steamer

34 A Great Experience Massage scalp Adjust water temperature
Protect client’s face Don’t miss the nape A GREAT EXPERIENCE: Following are eight ways to make a good shampoo experience great. • Massage scalp. According to client’s preference. • Adjust water temperature. According to client’s preference. • Protect client’s face. Don’t allow your hands or the water to touch client’s face. • Don’t miss the nape. Don’t miss the nape when shampooing or rinsing.

35 A Great Experience Offer cool rinse Don’t drench towel Blot carefully
Include a great massage Offer cool rinse. Explain it will close the cuticle. If client objects, do not insist. Don’t drench towel. If towel becomes drenched, replace it before leaving shampoo area. Blot carefully. Don’t go beyond hairline, which might remove makeup. Include a great massage. This will keep them coming back for more!

36 Summary and Review Why is pH an important factor in shampoo selection?
Name 4 ways in which water can be purified SUMMARY AND REVIEW Cleanliness is the key to attractive hair. As a cosmetology professional, you will need to be able to analyze hair type and hair products to determine the best shampoo for your client. You will remember to always follow the manufacturer’s directions when using any product including shampoos. Remember to always make the most effective use of the opportunity provided when shampooing a client. It’s an opportunity for you to put clients at ease and make them feel comfortable about the service they are about to receive. Take care to be gentle when shampooing prior to a chemical service. Choose the correct shampoo for the hair type. A quality shampoo builds the foundation for successful salon services and for continued retail sales. Let’s review: Why is pH an important factor in shampoo selection? ANSWER: The higher the pH rating (more alkaline), the stronger and harsher the shampoo is to the hair. A high pH can leave the hair dry and brittle. The pH of normal hair is 4.5 to 5.5. Name four ways in which water can be purified. ANSWER: Sedimentation (a treatment that causes matter to sink to the bottom). Filtration (passing through a porous substance such as a filter paper or charcoal) to remove suspended clay, sand, and organic material. Boiling. Distillation (the process of heating water so it becomes a vapor, then condensing the vapor so that it collects as a liquid).

37 Summary and Review What shampoo and/or conditioner is appropriate for use on dandruff? What is the action of the conditioner on the hair? What is the chemical action of surfactants in shampoo? What shampoo and/or conditioner is appropriate for use on dandruff? On product buildup? On damaged hair? ANSWER: Dandruff—a medicated shampoo; product buildup—a clarifying shampoo; damaged hair—conditioning or moisturizing shampoos, protein conditioners, deep conditioning treatments. What is the action of conditioner on the hair? ANSWER: They deposit protein or moisturizer to help restore the hair’s strength, give it body, and protect it against possible breakage. What is the chemical action of surfactants in shampoo? ANSWER: A surfactant molecule has two ends, a head and a tail. The head is hydrophilic or water attracting. The tail is lipophilic or oil attracting. During the shampoo the two ends create a push-pull process that causes the oils and dirt to roll up into little balls that can be rinsed away.

38 Summary and Review What is the purpose of brushing the hair before shampooing? Describe the draping procedure for a shampooing service What hair services should not be preceded by shampooing, brushing, or massage? What is the purpose of brushing the hair before shampooing? ANSWER: Stimulates the blood circulation to the scalp; helps remove dust, dirt, and hair spray buildup. Describe the draping procedure for a shampooing service. ANSWER: Turn the collar to the inside, if necessary. Place a towel lengthwise across the client’s shoulders, crossing the ends beneath the chin. Place the cape over the towel and fasten in the back so that the cape does not touch the client’s skin. Place another towel over the cape and secure in the front. What hair services should not be preceded by shampooing, brushing, or massage? ANSWER: Chemical services.

39 Summary and Review Describe the hair and scalp treatment for oily hair, dry hair, and dandruff When are scalp massages performed? Describe the hair and scalp treatment for oily hair, dry hair, and dandruff. ANSWER: Dry hair: Drape client; brush hair 5 min; apply scalp preparation; apply scalp steamer for min; give mild shampoo; towel dry; apply moisturizing scalp cream; stimulate scalp with high-frequency current for 5 min; rinse and style hair. Oily hair: drape client; brush hair 5 min; apply medicated scalp lotion; apply infrared for 5 min; manipulate scalp; shampoo with corrective shampoo; towel dry hair; apply direct, high-frequency for min; apply a scalp astringent and/or styling aids; style hair. Dandruff: Drape client; brush hair for 5 min; apply scalp preparation; apply infrared for 5 min; manipulate scalp, using indirect, high-frequency; shampoo with corrective shampoo; towel dry; use direct, high-frequency for min; apply scalp preparation and/or styling aids; style hair. When are scalp massages performed? ANSWER: Before the shampoo.

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