2 I. Obtaining FoodAutotrophs are organisms that obtain their energy through the process of photosynthesis such as green plants (aka self feeders, producers)B. Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot make their own food but must obtain it from another source. Animals are heterotrophs and depend on producers for energy (aka consumers)
3 II. Harvesting the Energy in Food A. Plants and certain other producers use light energy to make organic molecules (energy source).1. H2O and CO2 are the raw ingredients2. Glucose (C6H12O6) and O2 are the products3. Occurs by rearranging the atoms
4 Harvesting the energyCellular Respiration is the process that converts this stored organic chemical energy into a usable form ATP (adenosine triphosphate)C. Both plant and animal cells then use ATP for energy and release CO2 and H2O (fig. 7.3)
7 I. What is Energy? Forms of? A. The ability to perform work or to move against an opposing force.B. Kinetic Energy: Energy of motionC. Potential Energy: Stored energyD. B and C are inversely proportional!
8 II. Law of Conservation of Energy A. You cannot create or destroy energy you can only change its form.B. Random molecular motion: Thermal energy!Caused by atoms bouncing of off each other.2. Thermal energy transferred from warmer to cooler is called Heat. (Can’t be retrieved and put back to work that is one reason why we must continue to eat.)
9 Law of conservation of energy C. Stored potential energy: Chemical energy!Potential to perform work is due to arrangement of the atoms and the bonds holding them together. (create bond = stored energy; break a bond = release of energy)2. Almost all organisms use one or more of the following: Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins (fig. 7-5)
11 III. Chemical Energy at Work. A. Cells vs. Engines: both work by breaking down complex chemicals into simple ones (breaking bonds!)B. Both use O2 to accomplish this and some energy is converted to thermal (heat). (fig. 7-7)C. Cell slower and more efficient than auto engines.
13 IV. Calories: Units of Energy A. Amt. of energy required to raise 1g of H2O by 1 deg. C. (very small)B. We use kcal or 1,000 calories. (food labels)C. Calorimeter used to determine kcal. by burning dried food. (H2O has no kcal’s)D. Cells use enzymes not flame to release energy thus it is easier to manage
16 I. How ATP Packs Energy A. Draw fig. 7-9. A=Adenine and 5-C sugar T=Tri or Three (ref. to # of P)P=PhosphateC. Each P is a neg. charged molecule since likes repel, they want to separate from each other- this contributes to the amount of potential energy avail. in each bond. (break bond=release energy)
18 II. ATP and Cellular Work A. Chemical reactions break ATP’s P bonds.B. Enzymes enable this to occur.C. The molecule that undergoes the change drives the work (creatine phosphate)D. Cells perform 3 types of work (fig. 7-101. Mechanical: muscle contraction2. Chemical: building/breaking large molecules3. Transport: pumping molecules across cell membrane
20 III. The ATP Cycle A. ATP continuously converts to ADP and back ADP can be converted back to ATP by reattaching the P with energy from foods organic moleculesA working muscle regenerates all of its ATP molecules about once each min. or 10 million per sec.
27 III. “Falling” Electrons as an Energy Source A. Falling elect. like waterfall-at the top the potential energy is high as it falls it becomes lessB. Atom’s positive nucleus pulls negative electrons the closer they get the more potential energy they lose.C. Positive O2 pulls strongly on electrons in the H2 and C thus rearranging the atoms and releasing energy.
28 IV. Electron Transport Chain A. Controlled fall of electrons “step-by-step” walk.B. Not burst (like flame) but series of controlled reactionsC. Electrons passed by carriers until O2 finally pulls electrons off at the end to form H2O and release energy to make ATP.
30 7.5 Cellular respiration converts energy from food to energy in ATP
31 I. Mitochondria Structure A. Outer membrane and Inner highly folded membrane enclosing thick fluid called matrixB. Folds increase amt. of surface area for more reactions to occur. (fig. 7-16)C. All chemical processes make up a cell’s metabolismD. Specific enzymes catalyze (speeds up) each reaction in a metabolic pathway
34 II. Stage I: Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) A. Occurs in cytoplasm (fig.7-17)B. 2 ATP “initial investment” to break the sugarC. 1 C6H12O6 in and 2 pyruvic acids out (3-C each)D. 2 ATP spent and 4 produced (net gain of 2)
40 Glycolysis 1. What are the products of glycolysis? 4 ATP molecules (net gain of 2) and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
41 Glycolysis2. Explain the terms energy-investment phase and energy-harvest phase.Energy-investment phase refers to the part of the reaction in which two molecules of ATP are used, while energy-harvest phase describes the part of the reaction that generates four molecules of ATP.
42 III. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle A. Occurs in the matrixB. Occurs twice for each glucose that entered stage oneC. Produces 1 ATP and electron carrier molecules
45 Krebs Cycle 1. What is the overall result of the Krebs cycle? Pyruvic acid is broken down, forming carbon dioxide and releasing energy.
46 Krebs Cycle 2. How is acetyl CoA related to the process? One pyruvic acid molecule is converted to one molecule of acetyl CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle.
47 IV. Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase Action A. Occurs in the inner membrane of mitoch.B. Refer to the previous information on “falling electrons” 7-4.C. Hydrogen ions pumped across the membrane to store energy like a dam holding back waterD. ATP synthases (enzymes) act like mini turbines to convert ADP back into ATP slowly.E. As many as 38 ATP’s produced for each glucose that entered glycolysis.
54 ETC and ATP Synthase1. What is the end result of the process shown here?ATP is generated.
55 ETC and ATP Synthase2. How is the movement of H+ ions related to this process?Energy released by the chain pumps H+ ions across a membrane. The H+ ions flow back through ATP synthases, generating ATP.
58 I. Fermentation in Human Muscle Cells A. Fermentation makes ATP without using oxygenB. This process is entirely glycolysis, which does not produce a lot of ATP compared to all of cellular respiration but it is enough for short bursts of energyC. The byproduct of fermentation is the build up of lactic acid in your muscles, this is the soreness you feel after intense exercise
59 II. Fermentation and microorganisms A. Like your muscles, yeast is capable of both cellular respiration and fermentationB. When yeast is kept in an anaerobic environment, they are forced to convert sugar and other foods.C. Instead of producing lactic acid as a waste product, fermentation in yeast cells produces alcohol and carbon dioxideD. There are also fungi and bacteria that produce lactic acid during fermentation and help transform milk into cheese and yogurt giving them their characteristic flavors
64 Fermentation1. How are the two types of fermentation similar? How are they different?Each process starts with glucose, produces two molecules of ATP, and has an intermediate product of pyruvic acid. Fermentation in muscle cells produces lactic acid, while fermentation in yeast produces carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
65 Fermentation 2. Why is there no net gain of NADH in either process? In each process, 2 molecules of NADH are generated in the first step, but 2 molecules of NADH are used in the second step.