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Presentation on theme: "POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION"— Presentation transcript:

Presented By: Chandra Bhushan Singh Electrical and Electronics Engineering (7th sem)

2 Agenda Introduction Elements of protection system
Electrical System fault and system Protection with Protective Relays Conclusion

3 Why A System Needs Protection?
There is no ‘fault free’ system. It is neither practical nor economical to build a ‘fault free’ system. Electrical system shall tolerate certain degree of faults. Usually faults are caused by breakdown of insulation due to various reasons: system over current, over voltage, lighting, etc.

4 Element of protection system
(1)Current and Voltage Transformers (2)Relays (3)Circuit breakers (4)Batteries (5)Fuses (6)Lighting Arresters

5 Current transformer Current transformer consists at least of two secondary windings. The first winding is usually designed for measuring, the second is used for protection. The secondary of current transformers are almost connected in star

6 Voltage transformer Voltage transformer is often consists of two windings. The first winding is connected in star, and the stare point must be earthed. The second winding is connected as open delta.

7 Relay Purpose Isolate controlling circuit from controlled circuit.
Control high voltage system with low voltage. Control high current system with low current. Logic Functions

8 Advantages for Using Protective Relays
Detect system failures when they occur and isolate the faulted section from the remaining of the system. Mitigating the effects of failures after they occur. Minimize risk of fire, danger to personal and other high voltage systems.

9 CIRCUIT BREAKER Low voltage circuit breaker Magnetic circuit breaker
Medium voltage circuit breaker High voltage circuit breaker

10 Battery bank Battery bank are called as backbone of protection system
Emergency use for power system

11 Fuse Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal current and of excessive current only for short periods. It is used to protect the low voltage or current rating devices

12 Lighting arrester A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power system to protect the insulation damaging effect of lightning. All lighting arrester are earthed


14 Protective Devices Comparison
Circuit Breaker v/s Relay Relays are like human brain; circuit breakers are like human muscle. Relays ‘make decisions’ based on settings. Relays send signals to circuit breakers. Based the sending signals circuit breakers will open/close.

15 Generator Protection Generator Differential Protection
Loss of Field or Loss of Excitation Protection Negative Sequence or Current Unbalance Protection Over Fluxing or Over Excitation Protection Over Current Protection Stator Earth Fault Protection

16 Rotor Earth Fault Protection
Restricted Earth Fault Protection Backup Impedance Protection Low Forward Power Protection Reverse Power Protection Over Frequency Protection Under Frequency Protection Over Voltage Protection

17 Generator Protection Differential and Ground Fault

18 Generator Protection Phase Unbalance
Negative Sequence Voltage example:

19 Negative Sequence: The direction of rotation of a negative sequence is opposite to what is obtained when the positive sequence are applied. Negative Sequence Relay will constantly measure and compare the magnitude and direction of the current.



Gas and Temperature Monitoring Thermal protection Differential and Ground Fault Protection Over current protection


24 Transformer Protection Ground Fault and Differential Relay

25 Thermal Overload Relays
Use bimetallic strips to open/close relay contacts when temperature exceeds/drops to certain level. Require certain reaction time Inverse time/current relationship

26 Transmission line protection
Distance protection Earth fault protection Over current protection Carrier protection

27 Conclusion Relays control output circuits of a much higher power.
Safety is increased Protective relays are essential for keeping faults in the system isolated and keep equipment from being damaged. Relay is like an insurance against damage due to fault.

28 Questions?



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