Mongol Location The Mongols began in Central Asia Steppe – dry, hard grasses, cold winters, hot summers. This area was mostly grassland (no agriculture), so the people were nomadic pastoralist. Pastoralists – herdsman of domestic animals, they did not wander aimlessly, they had patterns that they followed to certain campsites.
Mongol Conquests When: Early in the 1200s Their Leader: Genghis Khan Temujin was his given name – given the name Genghis Khan which means universal ruler. Over the course of about 20 years the Genghis Khan led the Mongols to conquer all of Central Asia
Mongol Conquests Factors that made the Mongols successful when they overthrew people 1) Their military was very organized Based on the decimal system into groups of ten, these ten were like a family 2) Genghis Khan was a great strategist and leader Demanded unwavering loyalty from his soldiers 3) Mongols used Cruelty as a weapon The Mongols would usually give their enemies a chance to surrender, but they would slaughter some to make an example.
He said: Mans greatest good fortune is to chase and defeat his enemy, seize his total possessions, leave his married women weeping and wailing, and ride his horse.
The Mongol Military Mongol Way of Fighting Small units of men made up large armies The Mongols were horsemen Each soldier had 3 - 5 horses, mostly mares (females) and the could live off the horse milk if they needed. Or they would put a small gash in the neck of the horse and drink the blood…mmm, good! The Mongols trained to be fighters One unique training method that the Mongols used was huge hunts organized annually on the steppe. The Mongol horsemen would make a great circle, and drive all manner of animals in toward the center. Practicing the dynamic maneuvers that would also be used on a battlefield, the Mongols would trap all the animals of various types in their encirclement, and on the order of their commander, begin the slaughter. This was an excellent way for the Mongols to train, and enjoy the recreation of hunting, as well as gather huge amounts of food for massive feasts.
The Mongol Military They used spies Prior to the invasion of Europe, Batu and Subutai sent spies for almost ten years into the heart of Europe, making maps of the old Roman roads, establishing trade routes, and determining the level of ability of each principality to resist invasion. Communication in Battle their use of flags to communicate movement orders during combat was unmatched until the advent of radio 700 years later. Weapons The reflex bows used by the Mongols were among the best of the age. Plate armor could be penetrated at close range, using special heavy arrows. Hitting targets up to 300 yards was possible, almost 50-100 yards more than the legendary English long bowmen. The Mongols used composite reflex bows on horseback and longbows while on the ground.reflex bowslongbows
The Mongol Military Mobility They showed mobility unheard of by armies of the time--up to 120 miles/day. The could ride for up to 10 days at a time! Tactics The Mongols were masters of the feigned retreat, which is perhaps the most difficult battlefield tactic to execute. Pretending disarray and defeat, they would turn and run, only to pivot when the enemy was drawn out, and destroy them at their leisure.
Pax Mongolica When: mid-1200s – mid-1300s With the Mongol take over of so much land, there was one major byproduct: PAX MONGOLIA (Mongol Peace). This provided for: 1) better trading between Asia and Europe 2) Mission opportunity for churches 3) transfer of technology (like gunpowder). One negative thing brought over the trade routes was the bubonic plague.
Genghis Khans Death G.K. died in 1227 Even after he died his sons and grandsons continued to expand the empire Empire when Genghis Khan died.