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ECE 662 Microwave Devices Microwave Materials, Diodes and Transistors February 3, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "ECE 662 Microwave Devices Microwave Materials, Diodes and Transistors February 3, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 ECE 662 Microwave Devices Microwave Materials, Diodes and Transistors February 3, 2005



4 Two-Terminal Negative Resistance Devices Varactor – small pn diodes that are operated as nonlinear capacitors In the reverse bias region

5 Application of Negative Resistance Devices

6 Varactor Varactor = Variable reactor Use of voltage-variable properties (such as capacitance) of reversed-biased p-n junctions Reverse biased depletion capacitance is given by C j ~ (V b + V R ) -n or C j ~ (V R ) -n for V R >> V b, where n = ⅓ for a linearly graded junction and n = ½ for an abrupt junction. Can further increase the voltage sensitivity by using a hyperabrupt junction having an exponent n greater than ½.

7 Charge Depletion Regions


9 Varactor Present applications mostly for harmonic generation at millimeter and sub millimeter wave frequencies and tuning elements in various microwave applications. A common varactor is the reversed biased Schottky diode. Advantages: low loss and low noise. Produces only odd harmonics when a sinusoidal signal is applied, so a frequency tripler can be realized without any second harmonic.

10 Varactor

11 Varactor Frequency Multipliers Provide LO power to sensitive millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths receivers. Schottky doublers can deliver 55 mW at 174 GHz Heterostructure Barrier Varactor Diodes acting as triplers deliver about 9mW at 248 GHz.

12 Crossed Waveguide Frequency Multiplier Ref. Golio

13 Varactor Devices Lower frequencies: reversed biased semiconductor abrupt p+-n juction diodes made from GaAs or Si. Higher frequencies: Schottky diodes (metal- semiconductor junction diodes High frequencies and power handling: heterostructure barrier varactor – several barriers stacked epitaxially

14 Tunnel Diode To achieve microwave capability –Device dimensions must be reduced –Parasitic capacitance and resistance must be minimized. Tunnel diode –Associated with a quantum tunneling phenomenon –Tunneling time is very short permitting its use well into the millimeter region –Used for low power microwave application Local oscillator, detectors, mixers, frequency locking circuit Low cost, light weight, high speed, low-power operation, low noise

15 Tunnel Diode In classical case, particle is reflected if E< potential barrier height of V 0 In quantum case particle has a finite probability to transmit or “tunnel” the potential barrier Single p-n junction which has both p & n sides heavily doped  depletion regions very narrow and tunneling distance is small ~ 50 to 100 Å –(1 Å =10 -8 cm=10 -4  m) –High dopings cause Fermi levels within allowable bands

16 p-n junction

17 Tunnel Diode - abrupt junctions of heavily doped p & n semiconductor material p~n~10 19

18 Tunnel Diode 1) For zero bias - electrons tunneled through narrow barrier at equal rates in each direction. Net current zero. 2) Small forward bias - electrons at bottom of conductor band on n side are are raised to energy levels corresponding to unoccupied energy levels on the p side. Therefore, tunneling current in forward direction with increases with bias.

19 Tunnel Diode 3) For still larger bias, more and more electrons are raised to levels lying opposite the forbidden band on p side to which to which no tunneling is possible therefore the current reduces with increasing bias. 4) As bias increases further, the current remains small until minority carrier injection similar to conventional diodes predominates.

20 Tunnel Diode 5) with reverse as an increasing number of electrons on the p side find themselves opposited allowed and empty levels in the conduction band on the n side therefore tunneling increases rapidly with increasing bias.

21 Application of Negative Resistance Devices Note negative resistance

22 Tunnel Diode Note that small changes in  V B result in large changes in i hence V R L Negative Resistance Devices I & V, 180  out of phase I 2 R  power absorbed, but if R  –R then power generated



25 Summary of Tunnel Diode Quantum Tunneling Phenomena Tunneling time short - mm waves Low-power applications n-p sides so heavily doped that the fermi levels lie within the conduction and valence bands Good for extreme speed Rate of tunneling can change as fast as energy levels can be shifted Devices such as transistors give more power, but traditionally have suffered in speed due to rate of diffusion of charge changing.

26 Solid-State Device Power Output vs Frequency ref: Sze and modified by Tian

27 Transistors Bipolar (Homojunction) –Inexpensive, durable, integrative, relatively high gain Bipolar (Heterojunction) –High speed switching Field Effect Transistors –Junction –MESFET, MOSFET, High Electron Mobility (HEMT) –A v as well as Q c, better efficiency, lower noise figure, higher speed, high input impedance


29 pnp transistor with all leads grounded ref. Sze

30 pnp transistor in the active mode of operation ref. Sze

31 Various current components in a p-n-p transistor under the active mode of operation. ref. Sze

32 Bipolar Transistor – Gain (f)

33 Bipolar Transistor – Gain (f) – cont.

34 Bipolar Transistor – High Freq.

35 Bipolar Transistor – Gain (f)

36 Field-Effect Transistors Advantages –1) Voltage gain and current gain (simultaneously) –2) Higher efficiency compared to bipolar –3) Lower Noise Figure –4) Higher f max and consequently higher operating frequency –5) High input resistance, up to several Meg

37 Field-Effect Transistors V is changed by V gs – to change channel size {reverse bias between Source and gate to adjust channel forward bias between source and Drain for current flow (majority carrier)}

38 Field-Effect Transistors GaAs FETBipolar Xtr. Gain20 – 40 dB~10 dB BWSeveral GHzSeveral 1/10 GHz Power Out0.5 to 5 W20 W f max ~ 8 GHz~ 3 GHz Pf max 2 ~ 3x10 20 WHz 2 ~ 2x10 20 WHz 2

39 Field-Effect Transistors To get larger output powers – use larger gate widths –~ 1W / 1 mm gate width Single gate width ~ 250 to 500  m Use multiple gates (~12) to increase power

40 Technology Alternatives - 1 Ref: MPD, Nov 2002, Amcom Communications Material technologies (GaAs, Si, SiGe) Process technologies (Epitaxy, Implant) Device technologies (BJT, HBT, MESFET, HEMT) Power levels less than 1 W –BJT, HBT (use single polarity supply and offer cost advantages at these power levels) –GaAs, MESFET’s, pHEMT’s (better linearity and efficiency)

41 Technology Alternatives - 2 Ref: MPD, Nov 2002, Amcom Communications High power levels above 10 W –Si LDMOS (attractive at frequencies below 2 GHz) –Wide band gap devices such as SiC, MESFET’s, GaN, HEMT’s (higher power, higher voltage and promising linearity performance)

42 Terrestrial wireless systems Ref: MPD, Nov 2002, Amcom Communications Broadband internet access – operate in the frequency range of 1 – 6 GHz. Low cost subscriber units: less than 1 W transmit power: SiGe, GaAs HBT, MESFET and pHEMT MMIC’s. Higher power (2-10 W) GaAs FTE, pHEMT (optimize RF power output and best linearity performance over the specific band of interest while keeping the cost low)


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