Presentation on theme: "Welcome! Warm-Up: You will have 3 minutes to complete any last minute review before we begin the reading quiz… "— Presentation transcript:
1 Welcome!Warm-Up: You will have 3 minutes to complete any last minute review before we begin the reading quiz…
2 Psychologists do more than just wonder about human behavior: they conduct RESEARCH
3 Two Types of Research Used in Psychology Applied Researchclear and practical reasons and used for researchEx: If a psychologist was trying to come up with a new behavior therapy to stop heroin use, it would be applied researchBasic Researchno immediate, real-world uses but explores interesting questionsEx: Studying the differences between cultures and physical beauty is an example of basic research
4 Things that make research scientific Research Must Be ReplicableMust be able to be copied by others to get similar reliable datathe best and most reliable studies are replicated over and over
5 Things that make research scientific Research Must Be PreciseMeaning research has to be to the point and easily understoodTo be precise psychologists useOperational Definitionsa definition of terms so basic that when others read your study they know exactly what you are looking for or measuringExample – if you are trying to measure sense of humor – how would you make it precise?
6 What can cause research to go wrong?? BiasWhat exactly do I mean by bias??
7 BiasAny influence in research that unfairly increases the possibility we will reach a particular conclusionTypes of BiasResearcher Bias, Confirmation Bias, Experimenter Biaswhen researchers look for and accept evidence that supports their beliefs and ignore or reject evidence that prove false their beliefsParticipant Bias (or subject bias)when research participants respond in a certain way because they know they are being observedact how they think the researcher wants them to actHindsight Biaswhen researchers believe, after learning the outcome of research, that they knew it all along
8 Hawthorne Effect short-lived increase in productivity the fact that you know you are in an experiment can cause changeSo even a control group may experience changes and affect results of experimentWhether the lights were brighter or dimmer, production went up in the Hawthorne electric plant.
9 Scientific Method in Psychology Scientists develop theories through the scientific methodThe scientific method is the process used in psychology to discover knowledge about human behaviour and mental processes5
10 Scientific Method in Psychology (cont’d) The first step is to state the problemPsychologists must ask questions that can be answeredThe questions must be specific and defined in a clear way5
11 Scientific Method in Psychology (cont’d) The second step is to develop a hypothesisA hypothesis is an educated guess about the answer to the question that has been posedHypotheses often emerge from theory5
12 Scientific Method in Psychology (cont’d) Step three is to design a studyResearchers must identify key variables and choose a suitable method for investigationResearchers also must consider how many participants will be required and who the participants will be7
13 Scientific Method in Psychology (cont’d) The fourth step is collect and analyze dataTechniques must be selected that do not bias the resultsStatistical methods help summarize the data that have been collected7
14 Scientific Method in Psychology (cont’d) The fifth step is draw conclusions and reporting resultsResearchers report results to the scientific community by making presentations at conferences or by publishing their findings in a journal7
15 Experimental MethodPsychological research often takes the form of an experimentAn experiment is a procedure in which researchers systematically manipulate and observe elements of a situation to test a hypothesis11
16 Experimental Method (cont’d) A variable is characteristic of a situation or a person that is subject to change or that differs within or across situations or persons11
17 Experimental Method (cont’d) The independent variable is manipulated by the experimenterThe dependent variable is the behavior or response that is expected to change because of the experimenter’s manipulation11
18 Independent Variable Dependent Variable Factors that are manipulated in an experimentThe variable that should cause something to happenDependent VariableThe variable that should show the effect of changing the IVthe way you can figure this out is …”If…then…” If = IV then = DV- “If students study for a quiz before going to sleep, rather than in the morning, then they will get higher test scores”Experimenters try to hold everything else constant so that the independent variable is the cause of the observed effects but this doesn’t always happen because of…
19 Independent Variable Whatever is being manipulated in the experiment. Hopefully the independent variable brings about change.If there is a drug in an experiment, the drug is almost always the independent variable.
20 Dependent Variable Whatever is being measured in the experiment. It is dependent on the independent variable.The dependent variable would be the effect of the drug.
21 Experimental Method (cont’d) A sample is the limited number of people researchers select to be part of the experiment and who represent a larger group11
22 Experimental Method (cont’d) An operational definition is a definition of a variable in terms of the methods or procedures used to study that variableStudying defined as 20 minutes per day over three days is an operational definition11
23 Experimental Method (cont’d) Participants are the individuals who take part in an experiment and whose behaviour is observed and recorded11
24 Experimental Method (cont’d) The experimental group “receives” the independent variableThe control group is a comparison group who are tested on the dependent variable but do not receive the independent variable15
25 3 Types of Research you will have to know!!! Descriptive ResearchCorrelational ResearchExperimental Research
26 What is going on in this picture? We cannot say exactly, but we can describe what we see.This is called…Descriptive ResearchResearch Type #1describes the “who, what, when, where” of a situationNOT concerned with causes or how something works only about describing what is going on
27 3 Types of Descriptive Research The Case StudyThe SurveyNaturalistic Observation
28 Descriptive Research Type #1 The Case Study Where one person (or situation) is observed and studied in depth to gather information.For example, if I wanted to study personality and abnormal behavior how would a case study go about it??
29 Case Studies A detailed picture of one or a few subjects. Tells us a great story…but is just descriptive research.Does not even give us correlation data.The ideal case study is John and Kate. Really interesting, but what does it tell us about families in general?
30 Can study a behavior in depth and get quality info on that case The results of the case study are usuallynot generalizable to the rest of the population.One persons case would not be a valid representation of the whole populationStrengthWeakness
31 Descriptive Research Type #2 The Survey Uses interviews or questionnaires to gather information like attitudes and beliefsThe GoodAllows generalizationCheap and anonymousCan get a diverse and large populationHas both pros and cons when used
32 Where are surveys used in daily life? Survey Method: The BadSocial Desirability BiasGive socially acceptable answers not truthVolunteer BiasPeople who volunteer may not be representative of whole populationProblems with wording and answer optionsWhere are surveys used in daily life?
33 Descriptive Research Type #3 Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in natural environmentNo interacting with subjects at all – just an observer“taking the lab into the field”What are the benefits and detriments of Naturalistic Observation?+ = natural behavior- = observers may see different things- = can’t control the environment or outside factors
34 Field Trip We will stay together as we walk around the school grounds. We are to stay quiet and observeThere is nothing special set up, I just want you to LOOK
35 How many signs in the hallway How many signs in the hallway? How many times did you see the word Huskies? How many cars in the parking lot? Did a plane fly over? How many people did you pass?
36 Correlational Research Research Type #2Correlational ResearchExplores relationships or links (correlations) between variablesExample – mothers smoking during pregnancy is “correlated” with increased risk of SIDS in babiesDescriptive vs. CorrelationalDescriptive Research describesCorrelational Research links or relationships between things
37 Correlational Research #1 thing to remember in Correlational ResearchCorrelation does not equal causation!!!!!It is important to understand that CR does NOT say that one variable causes another but rather that they are somehow relatedFor Example…There is a correlation between ice cream and murder rates. Does that mean that ice cream causes murder?Remember…correlation does not equal causation!!!!!
38 Measuring the Strength of Relationships Relationship of variables is measured using correlation coefficientA statistical measure (a number) of strength of relationship of variables(ex. Ice cream and murder rates)Can vary to (more on this later)Correlations or relationships can go in two directionsPositiveNegative
39 Types of Correlation Negative Correlation Positive Correlation The variables go in opposite directions.Positive CorrelationThe variables go in the SAME direction.Studying and grades hopefully has a positive correlation.Heroin use and grades probably has a negative correlation.
40 Experimental Research Research Type #3Experimental ResearchExplores cause and effect relationships by manipulating and measuring variablesBad BreathEating too many Onions causes
41 Extraneous or Confounding Variables variables that you don’t count on that could change or influence the DVyou want to check for these to make sure they don’t mess up what you are looking for with the IVDetermine the type of experiment:Blind vs. Double Blind- blind– participants are kept in the dark about purpose or about hypothesis- double-blind– both the participants and researcher are kept in the dark- placebo– an inactive pill that has no known effect (sugar pill)
43 Mini Activity Design an experiment you might be interested to conduct: Come up with a questionForm a hypothesisCome up with your variables (IV, DV)Operational DefinitionConfouding Variables?Any bias?What you think the outcome will be?
44 Hypothesis – students who are assigned to wear headphones in study hall will have higher average grades at the end of the quarter than those banned from wearing headphonesSampleAll Study hall students(population)40 students randomly selected20 students randomlyassigned toexperimental group20 students randomlyassigned tocontrol groupWear headphonesdaily in study hallNot allowed to wearheadphonesin study hallIVAverage grades atthe end of the quarterAverage grades atthe end of the quarterDVDV