2 Menu, Recipes, and Cost Management The MenuA list of dishes served or available to be served at a meal.It is an important management tool.The menu is the single most important document in the business.
3 Menu, Recipes, and Cost Management Are the building blocks of the menu.Are an important management tool.Indicate ingredients to be purchased and stored.Give measuring and preparation instructions to the kitchen staff.
4 Menu Forms and Functions Menus must be planned for the clientele.The kind of clientele the business serves influences the form the menu takes.Each kind of operation has a different menu because each serves the needs of a different clientele.
5 Menu Forms and Functions The ClienteleTypes of Institutions:HotelHospitalsEmployee food serviceCatering and banquetFast-food and take-outFull-service restaurants
6 Menu Forms and Functions The ClienteleCustomer PreferencesFacilities must produce food that is appealing to their customers.Tastes vary by region, by neighborhood, by age group, and by social and ethnic background.Prices must be kept in line with the customers’ ability and willingness to pay.
7 Menu Forms and Functions Kind of MealBreakfastBreakfast menus are fairly standard within any one country.LunchMenu planning factors are speed, simplicity, and variety.DinnerThis is usually the main meal.Dinner is eaten in a more leisurely fashion.Dinner menus offer more selections and more courses.
8 Menu Forms and Functions Types of MenusStatic and Cycle MenusStatic menu is one that offers the same dishes every day.Cycle menu is one that changes every day for a certain period.After this period, the daily menus repeat in the same order.
9 Menu Forms and Functions Types of Menus (cont’d)Á la carte & Table d’HôteÁ la carte menu is one in which individual items are listed separately, each with its own price.Table d’ Hôte menu is one in which a selection of complete meals are offered at set prices.Prix fixe means “fixed price”menu. Similar to table d’hôte; on a pure prix fixe menu, only one price is given.
10 Menu Forms and Functions Types of Menus (cont’d)Tasting MenuAlso known by its French name, menu dégustation.Offered in addition to the regular menu.Gives patrons a chance to try a larger number of the chef’s creations.
11 Building the Menu The Classical menu Classical menu in the early twentieth century:Cold hors d’oeuvresSoupHot hors d’oeuvresFishMain courseHot entréeCold entréeSorbetRoastVegetableSweetDessert
12 The Modern Menu: Courses and Arrangement Building the MenuThe Modern Menu: Courses and ArrangementFirst coursesAppetizerSoupFish (sometimes included in more formal dinners)Salad (may be served before or after main course)Main dishMeat, poultry, fishVegetable accompanimentDessert dishesSaladFruit and cheeseSweets
13 BUILDING THE MENU Variety and Balance Flavor Do not repeat foods with the same or similar tastes.TextureRefers to the softness or firmness of foods and their feel in the mouth.Do not repeat foods with the same or similar texture.
14 VARIETY AND BALANCE (CONT’D) BUILDING THE MENUVARIETY AND BALANCE (CONT’D)AppearanceServe foods with a variety of colors and shapes.NutrientsMenus should provide enough nutritional variety to allow customers to select nutritionally balanced meals.
15 VARIETY AND BALANCE (CONT’D) Building the MenuVARIETY AND BALANCE (CONT’D)Cooking MethodsThey play an important role in determining the flavors, textures, and appearance of food.It is a good idea to offer a variety of roasted, braised, grilled, sautéed, and simmered foods.
16 Kitchen Capabilities and Availability of Foods Building the MenuKitchen Capabilities and Availability of FoodsEquipment LimitationsKnow the capacities of your equipment and plan menus accordingly.Spread the workload evenly among your equipment.Personnel LimitationsSpread the workload evenly among the workers.Spread the workload throughout the day.Offer items the cooks are able to prepare.
17 KITCHEN CAPABILITIES AND AVAILABILITY OF FOODS (cont’d) Building the MenuKITCHEN CAPABILITIES AND AVAILABILITY OF FOODS (cont’d)Availability of IngredientsUse foods in season.Use locally available foods.
18 Menu Terminology and Accuracy Building the MenuMenu Terminology and AccuracyAccurate and truthful descriptions are required:Point of originGrade or qualityCooking methodSize or portion“Fresh”“Imported”“Homemade”“Organic”Size or portionAppearance
19 Uses and Limitations of Recipes The Written RecipeUses and Limitations of RecipesRecipe: a set of instructions for producing a certain dish.Written recipes have many limitations.There are several reasons for this:Food products are not uniform.Kitchens have different equipment.It is impossible to give exact instructions for many processes.
20 The Written Recipe Standardized Recipes Standardized recipe: a set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish.It is a customized recipe developed by an operation for the use of its own cooks, using its own equipment, to be served to its own patrons.
21 STANDARDIZED RECIPES (cont’d) The Written RecipeSTANDARDIZED RECIPES (cont’d)Structure of RecipeName of the recipeDirections for preparing the dishYield, including total yield, number of portions, and portion sizePreparation and cooking temperatures and timesIngredients and exact amounts, listed in order of useDirections for portioning, plating, and garnishingFood safety instructionsDirections for preparing or fabricating ingredientsDirections for breaking down the station, cleaning up, and storing leftoversExpected trim yieldsEquipment needed
22 STANDARDIZED RECIPES (cont’d) The Written RecipeSTANDARDIZED RECIPES (cont’d)FunctionControls quality.Controls quantity.Is a key tool in controlling costs.
23 The Written Recipe Cooking with Judgment When cooking with judgment, determine the following points:What are the basic cooking methods?What are the characteristics of the ingredients?What are the functions of the ingredients?What are the cooking times?
24 Ingredient Measurement Weight: Measures how heavy an item is.AP weight is the weight of the item as purchased, before any trimming is done.EP weight is the weight after all inedible or nonservable parts are trimmed off.Volume: Measures how much space an item fills.Volume measures are used for liquids.
25 Measurement Portion Control Portion control: The measurement of portions to ensure the correct amount of an item is served.The following techniques are used:CountWeightVolumeEven divisionStandard fill
26 Measurement Metric System Basic Units Divisions of metric units are expressed by prefixesThe gram is the basic unit of weight.The liter is the basic unit of volume.The meter is the basic unit of length.The degree Celsius is the basic unit of temperature.Kilo: 1,000Deci: 1 ⁄ 10Centi: 1 ⁄ 100Milli: 1 ⁄ 1000
27 Converting Recipes Key Points Yield: a specific quantity of a food produced by a recipeConverting the recipe: to change the yield of a recipeConversion factor = New yield ÷ Old yieldNew quantity = Old quantity × Conversion factor
28 Food Cost Calculations Food Cost PercentagesFood cost percentage:The raw food cost or portion cost divided by the menu price.Food cost percentage = Food cost ÷ Menu priceTo determine what the menu price is at a certain food cost percentage:Menu price = Food cost ÷ Food cost percentage
29 CONTROLLING FOOD COSTS Key PointsMenu PlanningUtilize ingredients efficiently by following guidelines for total utilization of foods.PurchasingAccurate forecasting of future business, based on careful study of past business, is key to managing inventory and establishing par stock.ReceivingPay careful attention to receiving procedures.Use all edible trim.Do not add an item to the menu unless you can use the trimmings.Plan production to avoid leftovers.Plan ahead for use of leftovers.Avoid minimum-use perishable ingredients (ingredients that are utilized on only one or two menu items).
30 CONTROLLING FOOD COSTS Key PointsStoringProper storage is essential to avoid spoilage and loss of food items.Measuring and other Cooking ProceduresAll cooking procedures, including measuring, combine to help control food costs.ServingServing staff must be trained in serving techniques and in portion control for those items they are responsible for plating.A well-trained serving staff is an important part of controlling food costs