2 Chapter Menu Introduction Section 1: Geography Skills Handbook Section 2: The Geographer’s CraftSummary
3 Chapter 1 Intro Essential Questions: 1) What is geography? 2) What skills does knowledge of geography provide?Geography is used to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future. News coverage of local, national, and international events is part of daily life in the twenty-first century. An understanding of geography will help you learn how such events affect your life.
4 Chapter OverviewGeography is the study of the earth's physical features and the living things that inhabit the planet.Geographers use many tools and methods to study and understand the world's places.Investigating the relationships among human activities, the earth's physical systems, and the environment, the study of geography can contribute to a better future for the world's people.
5 Geography Skills Handbook Globes, Maps and Projections: Those who study geography use different ways of looking at the world or the essential elements of geography—the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, and environment and society.
7 Determining LocationWhen geographers study the earth in spatial terms, they focus on where places are located. Location can be expressed as absolute location or relative location.The basic tool for answering the question “Where?” is location.A grid system on maps and globes helps you find exact places on the Earth’s surface.A hemisphere is one of the halves into which the Earth is divided. Most places are located in two of the four hemispheres.
8 Determining Location (cont.) LatitudeLines of latitude, or parallels, circle the Earth parallel to the Equator and measure the distance north or south of the Equator in degrees.The Equator is measured at 0° latitude, while the Poles lie at latitudes 90°N (north) and 90°S (south).Parallels north of the Equator are called north latitude. Parallels south of the Equator are called south latitude.
9 Determining Location (cont.) LongitudeLines of longitude, or meridians, circle the Earth from Pole to Pole.These lines measure distance east or west of the Prime Meridian at 0° longitude.Meridians east of the Prime Meridian are known as east longitude. Meridians west of the Prime Meridian are known as west longitude.The 180° meridian on the opposite side of the Earth is called the International Date Line.
10 Determining Location (cont.) The Global GridEvery place has a global address, or absolute location.Absolute location of a place can be identified by naming the latitude and longitude lines that cross exactly at that place.
11 Themes in Geography:Geographers also group places, or particular spaces with physical and human meaning, into regions with similar physical or human characteristics.They study of Earth's physical systems which involves the effects of natural phenomena and ecosystem on the earth's surface.
12 Themes in Geography:Geographers also look at human systems to see how people settle the earth, form societies, create permanent features, and move from place to place. Human-environment interaction focuses on the relationship between people and their physical environment.
13 The Geographer's CraftPhysical geography and human geography are the two major branches of geography.Geographers use research methods and tools to study places and human activity, including direct observation, mapping, interviewing, statistics, and technology.Scientific instruments, such as satellites and computers, gather and organize data that is used by geographers, planners, and governments.Computers have revolutionized the process of mapmaking, providing much greater precision and making rapid changes possible.Geographers study the relationships among the physical and human features of the earth by using other disciplines such as history, government, culture, and economics.Geography skills are useful in many different careers, which often require a combination of training in geography and other areas of study.