Presentation on theme: "Baltic Littoral Warfighting Scenario:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Baltic Littoral Warfighting Scenario: A Competitive Performance Analysis: Current and Alternative Force Designs against Russian ForcesVSPresentation to the Honorable John McCain, Chairman, Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) and SASC Members September 2015ByDouglas MacgregorCol (R), PhDEVP, Burke-Macgregor Group, LLC (BMG)Baltic Littoral Warfighting Scenario:The Reconnaissance Strike Group (RSG) in Simulation Modeling
2 Briefing Outline What you should take away from this presentation; The Reconnaissance Strike Group: An alternative Army Force Design;A Primer on Simulation Modeling;Combat in the Baltic Littoral: Russian Plan of Action;Simulation Models 1-4;Why did the RSG perform so well?Summary and Recommendations.(Backup Slides with Simulation Data on attached CD)
3 What you should take away from this presentation: This briefing documents the unclassified results of simulated combat in the Baltic Littoral against contemporary Russian Army Forces comparing the performance of current U.S. Army Brigade-based forces with an alternative Army force design, the Reconnaissance Strike Group (RSG). In 5 Days of simulated combat against attacking Russian Independent Brigades (23,000 troops):Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) including support brigades (24,000, and 28,500 troops respectively) were defeated.(2) RSGs of 11,000 troops decisively defeated the attacking Russian Force.(1) RSG of 5,500 troops defeated the attacking Russian Force.
4 The Reconnaissance Strike Group (RSG): An Alternative Army Force Design RSG is a self-contained, mobile armored combat formation of 5,500 troops under a Brigadier General;RSG punches above its weight, mobilizing fighting power disproportionate to its size (“High lethality, Low density”);RSG offers more capability with less overhead at lower cost;RSG expands the nation’s range of strategic options;RSG offers the modular continuum of response Joint Forces needRSG is faster to deploy.The RSG is a Mission focused force package designed to execute “All Arms/All Effects” warfare.The RSG is functionally organized around maneuver, Strike, ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) and sustainment capabilities.Independent employment under Joint C2.
5 on Simulation Modeling: A Quick Primeron Simulation Modeling:RSGRecon Strike GroupThe StrongPoint Combat Power Builder and Combat Calculator (CBCC) rapidly evaluates competing force designs and courses of action in an experimental, classroom or field training environment;The simulation evaluates platform and unit effectiveness, then, models combat interactions.Values are summed for each type of equipment, then, aggregated to create unit scores.Geographical factors including terrain and climate increase or decrease a unit’s combat power.Mission posture (attacking or defending), leadership (C2), logistics, the EW/Cyber Environment and an air power effect (from dominance to parity, to ineffective) are also factored into the calculus.All data used are based on open sources, but classified information can be used if desired.ABCTXUS Army Armor BCTSBCTXUS Army Stryker BCTFAXUS Army Fires Brigade (Artillery)CABXUS Army Combat Aviation Brigade (Helicopters)SUSTXSustainment Brigade (Division Support)XRussian Independent Tank Brigade (T-90)XRussian Independent Motorized Rifle Brigade (BMP)XRussian Artillery Brigade
6 Area of Interest for Simulation Scenario: Combat in the Baltic Littoral: Russian Plan of ActionRoad to WarMoscow threatens intervention to protect Russian populations in Estonia and Latvia from “Fascist Forces.”NATO Council is divided on question of action.Russian Force Buildup in Western Military District triggers mobilization in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.Washington responds by deploying air, ground and naval forces over 10 days.U.S. Army Forces deploy through Riga.XXXXXXXArea of Interest for SimulationXXX
7 Simulation Model #1: US Army BCTs vs. Russian Independent Brigades US Army Expeditionary Sustainment Command (off map in Riga)Aggregate Forces In Simulation Area of Interest :U.S. Forces: ~24,000 troops (Armor Division Equivalent)Tanks: 174IFVs: 302Strykers: 180Guns & Mortars: 144MLRS: 36Air Defenses: 0Attack Helos: 96XXUS Division HQ (Kaunas)80 km division frontCABXXABCTXSUSTXXFAXSBCTXLithuanian Forces: ~6,000 troopsTanks: 0AFVs: 220Guns & Mortars: 179Rocket Artillery: 0Air Defenses: 0Attack Helos: 0ABCTXXRussia has ~500 SA-18 Grouse (aka 9K38 Igla) MANPADs not included in the total countXXRussian Forces: ~23,000 troopsTanks: 410AFVs: 488Guns & Mortars: 252Rocket Artillery: 118Air Defenses: 80 SA-8/11/13/14/15, ZSU23-4Attack Helos: 40XXRussian Sustainment Base (off map at Minsk)
8 Simulation Model #1: US Army BCTs vs Russian Independent Brigades (Day 5) (3) BCTs+ (Division Equivalent) defends in sector.(1) Lithuanian Brigade Defends Vilnius.(5) Russian Independent Brigades attack, then, attempt to bypass U.S. forces and strike deep.XXCABXXABCTXSUSTXDAY 559%79%DAY 1Combat Power Effectiveness (%)XFAXSBCTX100%ABCTXX50%XX0%XXXXXXX
9 Simulation Model #2 US Army: 3 ABCTs, 1 SBCT vs Simulation Model #2 US Army: 3 ABCTs, 1 SBCT vs. Russian Independent BrigadesUS Army Expeditionary Sustainment Command (off map in Riga)Aggregate Forces In Simulation Area of Interest :U.S. Forces: ~28,500 troops (Armor Division Equivalent)Tanks: 261IFVs: 453Strykers: 180Guns & Mortars: 180MLRS: 36Air Defenses: 0Attack Helos: 96XXUS Division HQ (Kaunas)80 km division frontCABXXABCTXSUSTXXFAXABCTXSBCTXLithuanian Forces: ~6,000 troopsTanks: 0AFVs: 220Guns & Mortars: 179Rocket Artillery: 0Air Defenses: 0Attack Helos: 0ABCTXXRussia has ~500 SA-18 Grouse (aka 9K38 Igla) MANPADs not included in the total countXXRussian Forces: ~23,000 troopsTanks: 410AFVs: 488Guns & Mortars: 252Rocket Artillery: 118Air Defenses: 80 SA-8/11/13/14/15, ZSU23-4Attack Helos: 40XXRussian Sustainment Base (off map at Minsk)
10 Simulation Model #2: US Army 3 ABCTs, 1 SBCT vs Russian Independent Brigades (Day 5) (3) ABCTs (Division Equivalent) + (1) Stryker BCT defend in sector.(1) Lithuanian Brigade Defends Vilnius.(5) Russian Independent Brigades attack, then, attempt to bypass U.S. forces and strike deep.XXCABXXABCTXSUSTXDAY 561%78%DAY 1Combat Power Effectiveness (%)XFAXABCTX100%SBCTXABCTXX50%XX0%XXXXXXX
11 Army BCTs versus Russian Independent Brigades: XXABCTXSBCTXIBCTX(T-90)(BMP)Even at 100% strength, the US Army BCTs contain substantially less combat power than Russian Independent Brigades
12 Simulation Model #3: Two RSGs vs. Russian Independent Brigades Aggregate Forces In Simulation Area of Interest :JTF HQ (TBD)US Army Expeditionary Sustainment Command (Riga)U.S. Forces: 11,000 troops (2 RSGs)AGS Puma: 322IFV Puma: 484AMOS Mortars: 120MLRS: 24TARES: 48Air Defenses: 46 Sky Rangers, 36 NASAMSAttack Helos: 24RSGkm sector of operationRSGLithuanian Forces: ~6,000 troopsTanks: 0AFVs: 220Guns & Mortars: 179Rocket Artillery: 0Air Defenses: 0Attack Helos: 0XXXRussian Sustainment Base (Minsk)Russia has ~500 SA-18 Grouse (aka 9K38 Igla) MANPADs not included in the total countXXXXRussian Forces: ~23,000 troopsTanks: 410AFVs: 488Guns & Mortars: 252Rocket Artillery: 118Air Defenses: 80 SA-8/11/13/14/15, ZSU23-4Attack Helos: 40
13 Simulation Model #3: Two RSGs vs Russian Independent Brigades (Day 5) Russian forces attack on a direct front axis.2 RSGs maneuver to attack Russian forces.Lithuanian BDE defends Vilnius.Russian Force attempts to bypass and is destroyed.RSGDAY 1DAY 559%79%RSGCombat Power Effectiveness (%)X100%XXXX50%XX0%RSGRSGXXX
14 Simulation Model #4: One RSG vs. Russian Independent Brigades Aggregate Forces In Simulation Area of Interest :JTF HQ (TBD)US Army Expeditionary Sustainment Command (Riga)U.S. Forces: 5,500 troops (1 RSG)AGS Puma: 161IFV Puma: 242AMOS Mortars: 60MLRS: 12TARES: 24Air Defenses: 23 Sky Rangers, 18 NASAMSAttack Helos: 12RSG100+ km sector of operationLithuanian Forces: ~6,000 troopsTanks: 0AFVs: 220Guns & Mortars: 179Rocket Artillery: 0Air Defenses: 0Attack Helos: 0XXXRussian Sustainment Base (Minsk)Russia has ~500 SA-18 Grouse (aka 9K38 Igla) MANPADs not included in the total countXXXXRussian Forces: ~23,000 troopsTanks: 410AFVs: 488Guns & Mortars: 252Rocket Artillery: 118Air Defenses: 80 SA-8/11/13/14/15, ZSU23-4Attack Helos: 40
15 Simulation Model #3: One RSG vs Russian Independent Brigades (Day 5) Russian forces attack on a direct front axis.RSGs maneuver to attack Russian forces.Lithuanian BDE defends Vilnius.Russian Force attempts to bypass and is destroyed.RSGDAY 1DAY 569%73%Combat Power Effectiveness (%)X100%XXXX50%XX0%RSGXXX
16 RSG contains 6X more combat power than Russian Independent Brigades Combat Power Comparison of RSG with Russian Independent Brigade Formations:RSGXXDefine Combat Power the viewing audience: Capability and Capacity(T-90)(BMP)RSG contains 6X more combat power than Russian Independent Brigades
17 Why did the RSG perform so well against the Russian Force?
18 The RSG is “not business as usual.” “If you want something new, you have to stop doing something old… People in any organization are always attached to the obsolete.”Peter Drucker, Management Challenges for the 21st Century, 1999The RSG Force Design:Provides significantly more combat power per metric ton, (more bang for the buck); Plugs directly into Joint Task Force without intervening Division HQTRS (more combat power with faster decision cycle under fewer HQTRS);Provides full spectrum rapid prototyping of the operational capability, not just the technology (new force design);Mitigates risk, saves money and speeds up delivery to the force by leveraging a mature, state-of-the art platform.Results in more combat power at lower procurement and life cycle costs.
19 Organization: RSG vs BCT Fires BattalionSupport BattalionMNVRBNColonel Commands 4-4,500 troopsIndustrial Age: BCT inside a Division (1942 Construct)Recon SquadronEngineer BNMNVRBNBG Commands 5,500 troopsSTRIKE BNC4ISR BN (Joint Plugs)Sustainment BNPost-Industrial : RSG for Independent OperationsThe future Army must be resilient, survivable, effective and act as a Joint enabler across a range of alternative futures.The RSG is a self-contained organization for combat; organized around ISR, Strike, Maneuver and Sustainment.The RSG is designed to “Stand Alone ” inside a Lego-like Joint Force Design.It’s a blueprint for all Army Formations—ISR, Strike, Maneuver or Sustainment.The MI Company and the Signal Company are in Engineer Battalion do not provide Joint Plugs at all. They are at Division. RSG has an Engineer Company (Mobility Combat Engineers) in the C4ISR BN.
20 What’s different about the RSG? A Snapshot: PUMA. PUMA has a welded armor hull with add-on modular armor. Weight varies from to 43 tons depending on the desired protection level. Current PUMA mounts a 30 mm autocannon. PUMA’s 1,073 HP engine means it can also mount a 120mm Smooth Bore Cannon. The system is fieldedOne RSG contains 242 ‘30mm’ and 161 ‘120mm’ equipped PUMAS.AMOS®. "Advanced Mortar System," a double barreled breech-auto-loading 120 mm mortar turret mounted on wheeled or tracked chassis. System operates autonomously with direct and indirect fire capability together with Multiple Rounds out to 10 km The system is fielded.One RSG contains 60 ‘120mm Mortar’ equipped PUMAs.MLRS. The weapon can fire guided and unguided projectiles from 42 to 300 km The system is fielded.One RSG contains 12 MLRS launchers/systems.NASAMS (National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System) is a medium range, air defense system that identifies, engages and destroys 72 targets simultaneously (aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles and UAVs). System is tested and ready for fielding.One RSG contains 18 NASAMS launchers/systems.TARES (Tactical Advanced Recce Strike) is a UCAV with a 200 km range and endurance time of four hours. It autonomously searches for, identifies and engages targets. Operator can also pick and attack targets (stationary and mobile armored or unarmored) or preplan. Up to 24 TARES can be flown simultaneously System is tested and ready for fielding.One RSG contains 24 TARES launchers.Note: Aviation Component in Strike BN plus complete inventory in backup slides.
21 (Operations including PSYOPS) (Personnel + Logistics) RSG C2 is designed for independence:Responds Directly to Joint Force CDRIntegrates Army, USAF/USN Strike Assets;Collects, Analyzes and Exploits Information;Absorbs additional Battalions or gives up battalions as needed;Addition Staff Functions such as Civil Affairs, Information, SJA can be integrated under Sustainment.Brigadier GeneralRecon Strike Group CommanderColonelChief of StaffLieutenant ColonelLieutenant ColonelLieutenant ColonelLieutenant ColonelLieutenant ColonelManeuver(Operations including PSYOPS)ISRStrikeCOORDSustainment(Personnel + Logistics)Information + CyberIntelligence functions split, but integrated to support maneuver, strike and ISR
22 The RSG:How it Fights60-80 km front w/ km zone/sector of operation (terrain dependent)RSGs’ defense of Lithuania is mobile and offensive in character:Focus is on enemy’s destruction, not holding ground;Russians are expected to penetrate forward defenses;RSGs are deployed in depth in a wide arc north, south and west of Vilnius with a light screen forward;Mines/Obstacles are emplaced behind the screen;Use of medium and long range unmanned ISR and Strike systems is maximized;Subordinate elements (battalion battle groups and AH64E aircraft) enjoy freedom to maneuver in depth, to attack advancing Russians in the flanks. (Dispersion to Concentration).Circles Depict Maneuver Battalion Kill ZonesArmed Maneuver Battalion360 degrees warfare demands capability for rapid change in direction. Multiple radars provide layered air defense.
23 Colonel Commands 4-4,500 troops RSG Sustainment: Self Contained LogisticsSUSTMNVRBNBG Commands 5,500 troopsSTRIKE BNC4ISR BNSustainment BNSupport BattalionFires BattalionEngineer BNMNVRBNColonel Commands 4-4,500 troopsSPTRecon SquadronRSG Sustainment Battalion is a whole self standing unit unlike the BCT’s Brigade Support Battalion (BSB).Each RSG Battalion has organic support (roughly 25% of its BN assets).RSG integrates more sustainment troops (2,426 Soldiers) than an entire Brigade Support BN (1,357 Soldiers).The has 638 out of 1469 vehicles dedicated to logistics functions.BSB dedicates 32% of all assets to logistics.BSB contains 29% of a BCTs personnel.BCT BNs have no organic support. Support comes from the Brigade Support Battalion (BSB) 70% of the BSB is distributed to other battalions as Forward Support Companies.32% of all vehicles and 29% of soldiers in BCT are logistics support. BCT BNs lack organic support.43% of all vehicles and soldiers in RSG consist of integrated logistics support.
24 RSG requires a third fewer LMSRs than a BCT based division equivalent. Deployment Requirements: A Comparison# of Large, Medium-Speed Roll-on/Roll-off (LMSR) ships required to deploy:ABCTXABCTXABCTXCABXRSGFAXSUSTXVS104,238 metric tons168,725 square meters48,214 metric tons56,045 square meters# of LMSR ships by class to move 1 RSGs1.6 Bob Hope or 1.5 Watson or 2 Gordon or 2 ShughartNote that an RSG on the Bob Hope and Watson actually takes up one and half LMSRs.# of LMSR ships by class to move division equivalent6 Bob Hope or 6 Watson or 7 Gordon or 7 ShughartRSG requires a third fewer LMSRs than a BCT based division equivalent.
25 What works now should triumph over “unobtainium.” Rapid PrototypingThe RSG:“First, by either of CBO’s metrics, the Puma would provide the greatest overall increase in capability of the vehicles CBO evaluated.Second, although the least expensive of the options, the Puma would provide a significant improvement in the Army’s IFV fleet.Third, when judged against the current Bradley IFV, the Puma would provide the greatest increase in capability per dollar invested, regardless of the metric used.And fourth, because the Puma is already being produced, its adoption would pose a relatively lower programmatic risk.”Congressional Budget Office (CBO), “The Army’s Ground Combat Vehicle and Program Alternatives,” (Washington, DC; GPO, 2013), page 28.“Quit looking for the next big thing. Put the technology that is sitting on the shelves to work, and do it with a clear purpose.”Bob Davis, the founder of LYCOSWhat works now should triumph over “unobtainium.”
26 Summary of Baltic Warfighting Scenario Results: Baltic Scenario 1: BLUE FORCE DEFENDS: 24,000 US Troops (1) SBCT, (2) ABCTs plus Artillery, Attack Helicopter, and Support BrigadesRED FORCE ATTACKS: 23,000 Troops organized into independent brigades (T-90, BMP, Artillery, Attack Helicopters)OUTCOME: Day 5, Blue 57%, Red 80%,Baltic Scenario 2: BLUE FORCE DEFENDS: 28,500 US Troops (1) SBCT, (3) ABCTs plus Artillery, Attack Helicopter and Support BrigadesRED FORCE ATTACKS: 23,000 Troops organized into independent brigadesOUTCOME: Day 5, Blue 59%, Red 79%,Baltic Scenario 3: BLUE FORCE DEFENDS: 11,000 US Troops in (2) RSGsOUTCOME: Day 5, Blue 79%m, RED 59%,Baltic Scenario 4: BLUE FORCE DEFENDS: 5,500 US Troops in (1) RSGRED FORCE ATTACKS: 23,000 Troops organized into independent brigadesOUTCOME: Day 5, Blue 73%m, RED 69%,
27 Summary and Recommendations: “Don't fight the problem, decide it.”George C. Marshall, General of the ArmySummary: CBCC Results are dramatic.11,000 U.S. Soldiers inside (2) Reconnaissance Strike Groups decisively defeated the attacking Russian Force (23,000 Russian Soldiers organized into Independent Brigades.)28,500 U.S. Soldiers inside current BCT organizations were defeated by the same attacking Russian Force.Recommended Actions:Direct the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs to examine the proposed RSG in simulation using a current, “high fidelity” warfighting scenario. Ask for a report from the CJCS in 90 days.Direct the CJCS to evaluate the potential for U.S.—German Military-Industrial Cooperation to stand up a PUMA-equipped RSG inside the German Army, as well as, inside the United States Army.The “about right” combination of Organization, Technology and Human Capital is the key to victory in future battle.