Presentation on theme: "Chapter 50 Table of Contents Section 1 Hormones"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 50 Table of Contents Section 1 Hormones Endocrine SystemTable of ContentsSection 1 HormonesSection 2 Endocrine Glands
2 Chapter 50 Objectives Section 1 Hormones State the major functions of hormones.Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands.Compare the structure of amino acid-based hormones with the structure of steroid hormones.Compare how amino acid-based hormones act on their target cells with how steroid or thyroid hormones act on their target cells.Relate how neuropeptides and prostaglandins act like hormones.
3 Function and Secretion Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Function and SecretionHormones are substances secreted by cells that act to regulate the activity of other cells in the body.Hormones affect all cells in the body and are made and secreted by endocrine glands.Endocrine glands are ductless organs that secret hormones either into the bloodstream or the fluid around cells.
4 Function and Secretion, continued Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Function and Secretion, continuedThe endocrine glands can be found through out the body and are collectively known as the endocrine system.Endocrine glands, such as the pancreas, can also be exocrine glands.Exocrine glands secrete substances through ducts to specific locations inside and outside the body.
5 Section 1 HormonesChapter 50The Endocrine System
6 Comparing Endocrine and Exocrine Glands Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Comparing Endocrine and Exocrine GlandsClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
7 Chapter 50 Types of Hormones Section 1 Hormones Hormones can be grouped into two types based on their structure. Hormones can either be amino acid-based hormones or steroid hormones.Amino acid based-hormones are made of amino acids, either a single modified amino acid or a protein made of amino acids, and are water soluble.Steroid hormones are lipid hormones that the body makes from cholesterol and are fat soluble.Similar to steroid hormones are thyroid hormones.
8 Chapter 50 Hormone Action Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Hormone ActionRegardless of which type of hormone is being activated, all hormones affect only their target cells.Target cells are specific cells to which a hormone travels to produce a specific effect.On the target cells are receptors. Receptors are proteins that bind to specific signal molecules, such as hormones, that cause a cell to respond.
9 Hormone Action, continued Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Hormone Action, continuedAmino acid-based hormonesAmino acid-based hormones bind to receptor proteins on the cell membrane and are called first messengers.Second messengers are then activated. A second messenger is a molecule that initiates changes inside a cell in response to the binding of a specific substance to a receptor on the outside of a cell.Changes to the cell through enzyme action then occur in a cascade fashion.
10 How Amino Acid-Based Hormones Work Section 1 HormonesChapter 50How Amino Acid-Based Hormones Work
11 Action of Amino Acid-Based Hormones Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Action of Amino Acid-Based HormonesClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
12 Hormone Action, continued Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Hormone Action, continuedSteroid and Thyroid HormonesSteroid and thyroid hormones are similar because they are both fat soluble.Because these hormones are fat soluble they can pass through the cell membrane.Thus, these hormones can enter their target cells and bind directly to receptor sites in the cytoplasm or nucleus and directly activate enzymes.
13 How Steroid Hormones Work Section 1 HormonesChapter 50How Steroid Hormones Work
14 Action of Steroid Hormones Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Action of Steroid HormonesClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
15 Other Types of Hormones Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Other Types of HormonesTwo other types of chemical messengers that are classified as hormones are neuropeptides and prostaglandins.Neuropeptides are hormones secreted by the nervous system and tend to affect many cells near the nerve cells that release them.Prostaglandins are modified fatty acids that are secreted by most cells and tend to accumulate in areas where tissues are disturbed or injured.
16 Comparing Hormones and Prostaglandins Section 1 HormonesChapter 50Comparing Hormones and ProstaglandinsClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
17 Chapter 50 Objectives Section 2 Endocrine Glands Identify the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland in the release of hormones.List the functions of the major endocrine glands and hormones.Explain the role of feedback mechanisms in maintaining homeostasis.Compare how negative feedback and positive feedback mechanisms are used to regulate hormone.Summarize how antagonistic hormones work as pairs to maintain homeostasis.
18 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Hypothalamus and Pituitary GlandTwo organs, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, control the initial release of many hormones for the endocrine system.The hypothalamus is the area of the brain that coordinates many activities of the nervous and endocrine systems.
19 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland, continuedThe hypothalamus responds to information it receives from the body by issuing instructions, as hormones, to the pituitary gland.The pituitary gland has two parts, anterior and posterior, and stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus.
20 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland, continuedThe nerve cells in the hypothalamus that secrete hormones are called neurosecretory cells.These cells secrete two types of hormones to the pituitary gland.Releasing hormones stimulate the anterior pituitary to make and secrete hormones.Release-inhibiting hormones inhibit production and secretion of anterior-pituitary hormones.
21 The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland
22 The Hormones Secreted by the Pituitary Gland Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50The Hormones Secreted by the Pituitary Gland
23 Anatomy of the Human Pituitary Gland Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Anatomy of the Human Pituitary GlandClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
24 Section 2 Endocrine Glands Chapter 50Thyroid GlandThe thyroid gland is located near the larynx and helps maintain a normal heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature by increasing or decreasing cellular metabolic rates.The thyroid gland is also important for development.
25 Anatomy of the Human Thyroid Gland Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Anatomy of the Human Thyroid GlandClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
26 Thyroid Gland, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Thyroid Gland, continuedAbnormal thyroid activity can result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.Overproduction of thyroid hormones is called hyperthyroidism and can have symptoms that vary from overactivity to high body temperature.A deficiency in a thyroid hormone is known as hypothyroidism and can have symptoms that vary from weight gain to retardation.
29 Chapter 50 Adrenal Glands Section 2 Endocrine Glands Humans have an adrenal gland located above each kidney. Each adrenal gland has an inner core, the medulla, and an outer core, also called the cortex.The medulla and the cortex function as separate endocrine glands.The medulla is controlled by the nervous system, and the cortex is controlled by the anterior pituitary.
30 Adrenal Glands, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Adrenal Glands, continuedAdrenal MedullaThe adrenal medulla secretes the hormones that stimulate a “flight-or-fight” response to a stress.In this response, the hormones epinephrine, also called adrenaline, and norepinephrine are released.These hormones increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and blood flow into the heart and lungs so the body can respond to the initial stress.
31 Adrenal Glands, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Adrenal Glands, continuedAdrenal CortexIn the presence of some stresses the pituitary gland will secrete the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).This hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce the hormone cortisol.Cortisol promotes the production of glucose from proteins to help cells make usable energy.
33 Chapter 50 Adrenal Gland Section 2 Endocrine Glands Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
34 Section 2 Endocrine Glands Chapter 50GonadsGonads are the gamete-producing organs that also produce a group of steroid sex hormones.Gonads, ovaries in females and the testes in males, are regulated by sex hormones, which begin production at puberty.Puberty is the adolescent stage during which the sex organs mature and secondary sex characteristics appear.
35 Chapter 50 Gonads, continued Section 2 Endocrine Glands The production of sex hormones is stimulated by the release of two hormones by the pituitary.The first hormone is luteinizing hormone (LH). This hormone stimulates ovulation and the release of progesterone in females and the release of androgens, such as testosterone, in males.The second hormone is follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone stimulates the growth and maturation of the ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males.
36 Chapter 50 Gonads Section 2 Endocrine Glands Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
37 Section 2 Endocrine Glands Chapter 50PancreasThe pancreas contains both exocrine and endocrine cells. The endocrine cells are called islets of Langerhans.These cells secrete hormones that regulate the level of sugar in the blood. The hormone insulin is one of the hormones produced.Insulin lowers the blood sugar level by stimulating body cells to store glucose or use it for energy.
38 Chapter 50 Pancreas Section 2 Endocrine Glands Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
39 Chapter 50 Pancreas, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Pancreas, continuedA condition called diabetes mellitus occurs when cells are unable to obtain glucose from the blood. This results in a high glucose level in the bloodThere are two types of diabetes: Type I and Type II.Type I occurs when immune cells attack and destroy the islet of Langerhans cells.Type II occurs when cells don’t have sufficient insulin levels or when the organism’s cells have become less responsive.
40 Chapter 50 Pancreas, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Pancreas, continuedA condition called hypoglycemia occurs when excessive insulin is stored and not properly delivered to body cells.This leads to a lowered blood glucose concentration, which can cause such symptoms as overactivity and dizziness.
41 Other Endocrine Glands Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Other Endocrine GlandsThere are several other glands in the endocrine system, including thymus gland, the pineal gland and the parathyroid glands.Thymus GlandThe thymus gland is located beneath the sternum and plays a role in the development of the immune system by secreting thymosin.This amino acid-based hormone stimulates formation of T cells.
42 Other Endocrine Glands, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Other Endocrine Glands, continuedPineal GlandThe pineal gland is located near the base of the brain and helps regulate sleep patterns by secreting melatonin.
43 Chapter 50 Pineal Gland Section 2 Endocrine Glands Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
44 Other Endocrine Glands, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Other Endocrine Glands, continuedParathyroid GlandThe parathyroid glands is made up of four glands embedded in the two thyroid glands.These glands secrete the parathyroid hormone, which stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the bones to the blood.
45 Chapter 50 Parathyroid Gland Section 2 Endocrine Glands Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
46 Other Endocrine Glands, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Other Endocrine Glands, continuedDigestive CellsSome of the digestive organs also act as endocrine cells by secreting a variety of hormones that control digestive processes. Two hormones that are secreted are gastrin and secretin.Gastrin is released by the stomach when food is eaten.Secretin is released by the small intestine and helps stimulates the release of various digestive fluids from the pancreas.
47 Chapter 50 Feedback Mechanisms Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Feedback MechanismsThe endocrine system plays an important role in the maintenance of a stable internal environment, or homeostasis.Maintenance of homeostasis is controlled by feedback mechanisms. A feedback mechanism is one in which the last step in a series of events controls the first.Feedback mechanisms can be either negative or positive.
48 Feedback Mechanisms, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Feedback Mechanisms, continuedNegative FeedbackWhen the final step in a series of events inhibits the initial signal in the series it is called negative feedback.An example of negative feedback is the regulation of thyroid hormones.
50 Feedback Mechanisms, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Feedback Mechanisms, continuedPositive FeedbackPositive feedback occurs when the release of an initial hormone stimulates release or production of other hormones or substances.An example of positive feedback is the stimulation and increase in luteinizing hormone by estrogen.
51 Comparing Positive and Negative Feedback Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Comparing Positive and Negative FeedbackClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
52 Feedback Mechanisms, continued Section 2 Endocrine GlandsChapter 50Feedback Mechanisms, continuedAntagonistic HormonesAntagonistic hormones work together in pairs to regulate the levels of critical substances.Example: Both glucagon and insulin regulate blood sugar levels.