Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Nervous Systems Part 2. Important concepts from previous units: Energy can be associated with charged particles, called ions. Established concentration."— Presentation transcript:
Important concepts from previous units: Energy can be associated with charged particles, called ions. Established concentration gradients can be a source of energy. Active transport requires a transport protein, in the cell membrane, and an energy source.
I. Membrane Potential - The ability for the membrane to potentially do work. A. This is “created” by electrical charge gradients across the membrane. 1. Ion Concentrations on each side of the membrane create the charge gradient. Polarity exists 2. (-) Anions (Inside) 3. (+) Cations (Outside)
Membrane Potential and ion concentrations CYTOSOL EXTRACELLULAR FLUID [Na + ] 15 mM [K + ] 150 mM [A – ] 100 mM [Na + ] 150 mM [K + ] 5 mM [Cl – ] 120 mM [Cl – ] 10 mM Plasma membrane
Na+/K+ pumps Cytoplasmic Na + bonds to the sodium-potassium pump CYTOPLASM Na + [Na + ] low [K + ] high Na + EXTRACELLULAR FLUID [Na + ] high [K + ] low Na + ATP ADP P Na + binding stimulates phosphorylation by ATP. Na + K+K+ Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its conformation, expelling Na + to the outside. P Extracellular K + binds to the protein, triggering release of the phosphate group. P P Loss of the phosphate restores the protein’s original conformation. K + is released and Na + sites are receptive again; the cycle repeats. K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+ K+K+
Ions and Energy 150 mM KCl Inner chamber Outer chamber –92 mV Potassium channel 5 mM KCl Artificial membrane K+K+ Cl – 150 mM NaCl Inner chamber Outer chamber +62 mV Sodium channel 15 mM NaCl Na + Cl –
II. Resting Potential - This term refers to an unstimulated neuron. The electrochemical gradient is established. Na + / K + Pump - This is a cell membrane bound protein. It controls the movement of the charged particles of Na+ and K+. Remember, these molecules can also be called ligands. 1. This protein requires ATP to work. (This is an example of active transport.) 2. It is responsible for generating a Nerve Impulsive. (A.K.A. Electrical Impulse.)
B. Gated Ion Channels – These proteins help the Na+/K+ pump generate a nerve impulse quickly. 1. Chemically—Gated Ion Channels - These respond to chemically charged ligands in the cellular fluids. 2. Voltage—Gated Ion Channels - These respond to the “charge” concentrations because of the ligands.
C. Depolarization 1. This phase refers to the flood of Na+ into the cell. This “destroys” the polarity. 2. Graded Potentials - This term refers to “how much” Na+ entered? (Like your tests have different levels…grades.) a. Threshold Potential – This terms refers to the minimum that must enter to generate a nerve impulse within a neuron. It is considered an all-or-none event. It either generates a nerve impulse or it does not. b. Action Potential “Spike” – Term refers to the electrical generated impulse in a nerve. (Action can now occur… a nerve impulse that can be relayed to the next cell.)
D. Repolarization 1. This phase refers to the pumping out of K + from the neuron in an attempt to return to a resting potential state. (The cell is trying to re-establish polarity.)
Impulse generation Resting potential Threshold Membrane potential (mV) Action potential Time –100 –50 +50 0 Potassium channel Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Na + Resting state Inactivation gate Activation gates Sodium channel K+K+ Cytosol Na + Depolarization K+K+ Na + Rising phase of the action potential K+K+ Na + Falling phase of the action potential K+K+ Na + Undershoot K+K+ Na +
E. Hyperpolarization 1.This phase refers to the excess pumping out of K + from the cell; so the cell will pull some back in. 2. This is necessary to re-establish a Resting Potential; when the electrochemical concentration gradient exists. 3. No generation of a “spike” is possible until polarity is re-established. 4. Refractory Period - This term refers to the period of time when a neuron cannot make a new impulse.
III. Propagation - This term refers to the impulsive traveling down an axon. (It is like a cup overflowing into the next empty cup. Then when it gets full, it flows over into the next empty cup in the line. This overflow of Na+ causes the voltage gates to open in the next segment, causing Na+ to flood into that segment.
Propagation An action potential is generated as Na + flows inward across the membrane at one location. Na + Action potential Axon Na + Action potential K+K+ The depolarization of the action potential spreads to the neighboring region of the membrane, re-initiating the action potential there. To the left of this region, the membrane is repolarizing as K + flows outward. K+K+ Na + Action potential K+K+ The depolarization-repolarization process is repeated in the next region of the membrane. In this way, local currents of ions across the plasma membrane cause the action potential to be propagated along the length of the axon. K+K+
IV. Saltatory Conduction – This term refers to the “hopping” of the impulse over the Schwann cells. This makes for extremely quick travel down an axon. The impulse must “jump” from node to node. This is because ion exchange can only occur at exposed membranes… where the Na+/K+ pumps are located. When you stub your toe, how long does it take for signal to get to your brain?
Saltatory Conduction Cell body Schwann cell Depolarized region (node of Ranvier) Myelin sheath Axon
VI. Reflex Arc (The simplest neural pathway.) A. A stimulus energy is detected by a Sensory Neuron. The neuron carries the energy signal to the spinal cord. B. An Interneuron (of the CNS – spinal cord) relays the energy back out to the motor nerve instead of to the brain. (“inter” means “go between”… between the sensory and motor neurons.) C. The energy is carried out of the CNS by the Motor Neuron. It carries the energy to an effector cell, usually a muscle. D. This is why you do not think about a reflex, it just happens. The stimulus never made it to the brain for integration.