Historic Steps Treaty of Paris (1951) = ECSC Treaty of Rome (1957) = EEC+Euratom Single European Act (1986) Treaty on the European Union (1992) Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) Treaty of Nice (2001) = Growth from 6 to 15 countries
Enlargement Copenhagen Summit 2002 Expansion to 25 countries by May 2004 Historical origin: 1989 Criteria for membership: Political Economic Acquis communautaire
Enlargement Economic issues 10 new members are at 40% of average EU GDP How large can the EU become? 25 countries 454 Million people Expansion to 27 in 2007 Bulgaria and Romania Turkey, anyone?
How does the EU work? Confederation of Countries NOT a federal state Something NEW!! Delegation of SOME (?) national sovereignty to EU organizations National interests Collective interests
How does the EU work? Political Structure Council of European Union European Commission European Parliament European Court of Justice European Court of Auditors European Ombudsman
How does the EU work? Political Structure Council of European Union Not European Council or Council of Europe Main decision making body Rotating presidency (6 months) Economic cooperation Budgetary control Member state are represented proportionally according to population they represent Acts on proposals from the Commission, in consultation with the parliament Majority Vote
How does the EU work? Political Structure European Parliament 626 members Elected for 5 years Largest groups EPP - European People’s Party PES - Party of European Socialists Strasbourg and Brussels Democratic control over community institutions Shares legislative power with council Cooperation Assent Codecision
How does the EU work? Political Structure European Commission Executive arm of EU 25 members Driving force in the integration process Proposes directions to take Implements the measures decided on by the Council and Parliament Answerable to the European Parliament Since1967, a single Commission has served all three European Communities (ECSC, Euratom and EC).
How does the EU work? Political Structure European Court of Justice 25 judges Ensure the equal application of community law Issues proceedings Failure to fulfill obligation Annulment Failure to Act
How does the EU work? Political Structure European Court of Auditors Fiscal watchdogs Monitors the income and spending of the EU Ensures correct contributions and redistribution of resources Monitors the spending habits of member states and individual EU projects and funding sources Central concern: fraud protection
How does the EU work? Political Structure European Ombudsman Liaison between EU citizens and the organization Helps individuals in their legal battle against maladministration in the EU Makes recommendations to Commission to counteract maladmistration
How does the EU work? Economic Structure European Central Bank European Investment Bank
How does the EU work? Economic Structure European Central Bank Define and implement the monetary policy of the euro zone Conduct foreign exchange operations Hold and manage the official exchange reserves of the countries of the euro zone; Issue notes in the zone euro; Promote the smooth operation of payment systems. Collects statistical information from national authorities