Presentation on theme: "King Saud University College of Nursing NUR 122"— Presentation transcript:
1 King Saud University College of Nursing NUR 122 MEDICATIONKing Saud UniversityCollege of NursingNUR 122
2 Drug administrationMedication: substance administered for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or relief of a symptom or for prevention of a disease.Medication or drugs are given to exert specific physiologic effects on the body.They play an important role in preventing, treating, and curing illness, their administration has become one of the most important, complex and risk-laden aspects of nursing care.
3 Routes of drug administration Oral: Per mouthSublingual: under the tongueBuccal: against the cheekPareneteral: IV, IM, SC, intradermal, intracardiac, intrathecal,intrapleural, intraosseousTopical: skin, eyes, ear, nose, rectum or vagina.Effects: local, systematic.Medication are prescribe by physician.Medication order includes the name of the drug, the dose, the route, frequency, date and time.
4 Effects of Drugs Therapeutic effect = desired effect Reason drug is prescribedSide effect = secondary effectUnintended, usually predictableMay be harmless or harmfulDrug toxicityResult from overdose, ingestion of external use drugBuildup of drug in blood
5 Drug allergy Drug tolerance Drug interaction Immunologic reaction to drugMild to severe reactions (anaphylaxis)Drug toleranceNeed increasing doses to maintain therapeutic effectDrug interactionOne drug affecting effect of another
6 Actions of Drug on the body Pharmacodynamics:Process by which drug changes the body (mechanism of action).Pharmacokinetics:Study of absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs
7 PharmacokineticsAbsorption: movement from the administration site into the bloodstream.Distribution: transportation of the drug from its site to the site of action.Metabolism: the drug is converted by enzymes into a less active form that can be excreted, (most drugs are metabolized in the liver).Excretion: elimination from the body. The kidneys are the most important route.
8 Drug NomenclatureChemical name — describes the chemical constituents of the drugGeneric name — assigned by the manufacturer that first develops the drugTrade name — brand name given by the company that sells the drug
10 Mechanisms of Drug Actions Drug-receptor interaction — drug interacts with one of more cellular structures to alter cell functionDrug-enzyme interaction — combines with enzymes to achieve desired effectActing on cell membrane or altering the cellular environment
11 Factors Affecting Drug Absorption Route of administrationDrug solubilitypHLocal conditions at site of administrationDrug dosageSerum drug levels
12 Adverse Effect of Medications Iatrogenic disease: disease caused unintentionally by medical therapy.Allergic effects: immunologic reaction to the drug.Toxic effectsDrug interactions
13 Signs and Symptoms of Drug Allergy RashUrticariaFeverDiarrheaNauseaVomitingAnaphylactic reaction
14 Factors affecting Medication action Developmental considerationsWeightGenderDietGenetic and cultural factorsPsychological factorsIllness & diseaseEnvironment, timing of administration
15 Types of Medication Orders Standing order — carried out until cancelled by another orderPrn order — as neededStat order — carried out immediately & once
16 Parts of the Medication Order Patient’s nameDate and time order is writtenName of drug to be administeredDosage of drugRoute by which drug is to be administeredFrequency of administration of the drugSignature of person writing the order
18 The 7 rights Right Medication Right Dose Right Rout Right Time (b.i.d, t.i.d, q.i.d. q8h)Right ClientRight informationRight Documentation
19 Controlled Substances Required Information Name of patient receiving narcoticAmount of narcotic usedThe hour narcotic was givenThe name of physician prescribing narcoticName of the nurse administering narcotic
20 Oral Medications Solid form — tablets, capsules, pills Liquid form — suspensions, syrupsOral Route — having patient swallow the drug.Enteral route — administering drug through an enteral tubeSublingual administration — placing drug under tongueBuccal administration — placing drug between tongue and cheek
25 Deltoid Site Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Landmarks for the deltoid muscle of the upper arm, used for intramuscular injections.Figure Administering an intramuscular injection into the deltoid site.Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
26 Dorsogluteal Site Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Landmarks for the dorsogluteal site for an intramuscular injection.Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
27 Criteria for Choosing Equipment for Injections Route of administrationViscosity of the solutionQuantity to be administeredBody sizeType of medication
29 Medical Record Documentation Document & sign each dose of medication, as soon as it is given, and the patient response.Intentional or inadvertent omitted drugs.Refused drugs.Medication errors.
30 Type of Medication Errors Inappropriate prescribing of the drugExtra, omitted, or wrong dosesAdministration of drug to wrong patientAdministration of drug by wrong route or rateFailure to give medication within prescribed timeIncorrect preparation of a drugImproper technique when administering drugGiving a drug that has deteriorated
31 Medication ErrorsCheck patient’s condition immediately; observe for adverse effects.Notify nurse manager and physician.Write description of error on medical record and remedial steps taken.Complete special form for reporting errors.
32 Patient Teaching Review techniques of medication administration. Remind patient to take the medication as prescribed for as long as prescribed.Instruct patient not to alter dosages without consulting physician.Caution patient not to share medications with others even if they have the same disease.