Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

King Saud University College of Nursing NUR 122

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "King Saud University College of Nursing NUR 122"— Presentation transcript:

1 King Saud University College of Nursing NUR 122
MEDICATION King Saud University College of Nursing NUR 122

2 Drug administration Medication: substance administered for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, or relief of a symptom or for prevention of a disease. Medication or drugs are given to exert specific physiologic effects on the body. They play an important role in preventing, treating, and curing illness, their administration has become one of the most important, complex and risk-laden aspects of nursing care.

3 Routes of drug administration
Oral: Per mouth Sublingual: under the tongue Buccal: against the cheek Pareneteral: IV, IM, SC, intradermal, intracardiac, intrathecal,intrapleural, intraosseous Topical: skin, eyes, ear, nose, rectum or vagina. Effects: local, systematic. Medication are prescribe by physician. Medication order includes the name of the drug, the dose, the route, frequency, date and time.

4 Effects of Drugs Therapeutic effect = desired effect
Reason drug is prescribed Side effect = secondary effect Unintended, usually predictable May be harmless or harmful Drug toxicity Result from overdose, ingestion of external use drug Buildup of drug in blood

5 Drug allergy Drug tolerance Drug interaction
Immunologic reaction to drug Mild to severe reactions (anaphylaxis) Drug tolerance Need increasing doses to maintain therapeutic effect Drug interaction One drug affecting effect of another

6 Actions of Drug on the body
Pharmacodynamics: Process by which drug changes the body (mechanism of action). Pharmacokinetics: Study of absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs

7 Pharmacokinetics Absorption: movement from the administration site into the bloodstream. Distribution: transportation of the drug from its site to the site of action. Metabolism: the drug is converted by enzymes into a less active form that can be excreted, (most drugs are metabolized in the liver). Excretion: elimination from the body. The kidneys are the most important route.

8 Drug Nomenclature Chemical name — describes the chemical constituents of the drug Generic name — assigned by the manufacturer that first develops the drug Trade name — brand name given by the company that sells the drug

9 Drug Preparations Oral: Topical: Injectable: - Vial, Ampoule
Capsule, pill, tablet, suspension, syrup Topical: lotion, ointment, suppository, transdermal patch Injectable: - Vial, Ampoule

10 Mechanisms of Drug Actions
Drug-receptor interaction — drug interacts with one of more cellular structures to alter cell function Drug-enzyme interaction — combines with enzymes to achieve desired effect Acting on cell membrane or altering the cellular environment

11 Factors Affecting Drug Absorption
Route of administration Drug solubility pH Local conditions at site of administration Drug dosage Serum drug levels

12 Adverse Effect of Medications
Iatrogenic disease: disease caused unintentionally by medical therapy. Allergic effects: immunologic reaction to the drug. Toxic effects Drug interactions

13 Signs and Symptoms of Drug Allergy
Rash Urticaria Fever Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting Anaphylactic reaction

14 Factors affecting Medication action
Developmental considerations Weight Gender Diet Genetic and cultural factors Psychological factors Illness & disease Environment, timing of administration

15 Types of Medication Orders
Standing order — carried out until cancelled by another order Prn order — as needed Stat order — carried out immediately & once

16 Parts of the Medication Order
Patient’s name Date and time order is written Name of drug to be administered Dosage of drug Route by which drug is to be administered Frequency of administration of the drug Signature of person writing the order

17 Medication Prescription

18 The 7 rights Right Medication Right Dose Right Rout
Right Time (b.i.d, t.i.d, q.i.d. q8h) Right Client Right information Right Documentation

19 Controlled Substances Required Information
Name of patient receiving narcotic Amount of narcotic used The hour narcotic was given The name of physician prescribing narcotic Name of the nurse administering narcotic

20 Oral Medications Solid form — tablets, capsules, pills
Liquid form — suspensions, syrups Oral Route — having patient swallow the drug. Enteral route — administering drug through an enteral tube Sublingual administration — placing drug under tongue Buccal administration — placing drug between tongue and cheek

21 Administration of Parenteral Medications
Subcutaneous injection — subcutaneous tissue (0.5-1 ml) Intramuscular injection - muscle tissue (1-3ml) Intradermal injection — corium (under epidermis) (0.1 ml) Intravenous injection — into a vein Intracardial injection — heart tissue Intraperitoneal injection — peritoneal cavity Intraspinal injection — spinal canal Intraosseous injection — bone

22 Sites for Intramuscular Injections
Ventrogluteal site Vastus lateralis site Deltoid muscle site Dorsogluteal site

23 Ventrogluteal site

24 Vastus Lateralis site

25 Deltoid Site Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure Landmarks for the deltoid muscle of the upper arm, used for intramuscular injections. Figure Administering an intramuscular injection into the deltoid site. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

26 Dorsogluteal Site Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure Landmarks for the dorsogluteal site for an intramuscular injection. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

27 Criteria for Choosing Equipment for Injections
Route of administration Viscosity of the solution Quantity to be administered Body size Type of medication

28 Topical Administration of Medications
Eye: eye drops, ointments Ears: ear drops Nose: nasal drops Rectal: suppositories Skin applications: ointment, cream lotion

29 Medical Record Documentation
Document & sign each dose of medication, as soon as it is given, and the patient response. Intentional or inadvertent omitted drugs. Refused drugs. Medication errors.

30 Type of Medication Errors
Inappropriate prescribing of the drug Extra, omitted, or wrong doses Administration of drug to wrong patient Administration of drug by wrong route or rate Failure to give medication within prescribed time Incorrect preparation of a drug Improper technique when administering drug Giving a drug that has deteriorated

31 Medication Errors Check patient’s condition immediately; observe for adverse effects. Notify nurse manager and physician. Write description of error on medical record and remedial steps taken. Complete special form for reporting errors.

32 Patient Teaching Review techniques of medication administration.
Remind patient to take the medication as prescribed for as long as prescribed. Instruct patient not to alter dosages without consulting physician. Caution patient not to share medications with others even if they have the same disease.

Download ppt "King Saud University College of Nursing NUR 122"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google