2 IntroductionCivics is the study of citizenship and government. Citizen legally recognized member of society. Government is the organizations, institutions, and individuals who exercise political authority over a group of people.
3 Purpose of GovernmentTo ensure prosperity and tranquility, through the use of public policies.POLICIES MEET PUBLIC GOALS, which in theory will solve problems in society.
4 What does the Gov’t do? ***Keep order*** (making & enforcing laws) Settle conflicts (court system)Provide community services (garbage collection, road construction)Legislate public policy (make budgets, plan for the future, )
5 Types of Gov’tsMonarchies -King or Queen is in power over a Kingdom. - Power is inherited. -Absolute Monarch: King or Queen has complete control. -Constitutional Monarch: King or Queen only has limited control. Autocracy -Style of gov’t when 1 person has complete power. -Example: Dictatorship -Most extreme autocracy is a totalitarian state.
6 Theocracy - Country controlled by religious organizations Theocracy - Country controlled by religious organizations. Oligarchic Governments - Power rests in the hands of a few. Aristocratic Governments - Power rests with the wealthy and upper-class. Anarchy - No government
7 American GovernmentDemocracy: - A form of government when the people of a nation have either a direct or indirect say in policy making. - “Rule of the People” 2 Forms of Democracy: Direct Democracy: all voters vote directly on every issue and majority rules. (Ancient Greece) Representative Democracy (Republic): the people elect representatives to run government for them. (Ancient Rome) -The US has a Federal Republic Democracy The states share power with the federal gov’t.
8 US Citizens Immigrants people who came here from other countries. Aliens permanent residents of the US who are still citizens of other countries.-Legal aliens may work, attend school, own property, and have legal rights-Many illegal (10 million) are in the US-If caught, they are deported (United States Border Patrol)
9 14th AmendmentStates: “all persons born or naturalized in the US, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States…”Passed shortly following the Civil War
10 Citizenship by Birth Naturalized Citizen A Native Born Citizen is born in a US Territory or has at least 1 American parent.Naturalized CitizenHow non-citizens become citizens:1.) Live in the United States for 3-5 years2.) File a declaration of intent with the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization3.) Learn US history, US civics, and English; display good ethics4.)Pass a citizenship test5.)Take an oath of loyalty to the United States
11 Diversity Chapter 1 Section 3 “e pluribus unum”-- out of many, one
12 Theories of DiversityMelting Pot Theory: have immigrants abandon their unique culture and assimilate; this strengthens societyTossed Salad Theory: we can all maintain cultural differences, yet merge as one society; multiculturalism
13 Discussion…Answer yes or no: 1. The US should encourage more immigration 2. The US should have two official languages 3. Schools should teach in languages other than English
14 Problems caused by Diversity RacismSexismAgeismBias against diverse lifestylesNegative stereotypes based on race, religion, physical appearance, disability and nationality
15 US Population At a Glance 211 million -- European decent35 million-- Hispanic35 million-- African American11 million-- Asian2.5 million-- Native American
16 Limits on ImmigrationImmigration is limited to 675,000 per year (quota)Exceptions to this quota can be made for refugeesPreference is given to those with special talent or skillProblem: What to do with illegals?