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Network Operator Perspective MPLS: 12 Years After Tom Bechly

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Presentation on theme: "Network Operator Perspective MPLS: 12 Years After Tom Bechly"— Presentation transcript:

1 Network Operator Perspective MPLS: 12 Years After Tom Bechly
IETF 74, San Francisco IAB Plenary March 18, 2009

2 MPLS: A Successful Protocol
MPLS has been and is a successful protocol From perspective of RFC 5218 (What Makes for a Successful Protocol?), MPLS was used for its intended purpose and at intended scale Goal was to switch packets to support rapidly expanding global networks MPLS is “wildly successful” (RFC 5218) in that its use has exceeded its original design goal thru development of numerous extensions From service provider perspective MPLS was successful in supporting growth, reducing cost, and providing basis for new services Original goal of bringing Layer 2 switching speed to Layer 3 was accomplished, but somewhat discounted over time due to hardware evolution L2 was hardware switched and L3 was process switched MPLS was easily leveraged for traffic engineering, VPNs, and layer 2 transport. For the service provider, MPLS has become one the most reached for and extended tools in the tool chest (150+ RFCs)

3 MPLS Customer Edge (CE) Router Provider Edge (PE) Router/Switch Provider Core Router/Switch MPLS CORE CE Router PE Router P Router Enables network edge routers to apply simple MPLS labels to packets or frames Forwards packets by swapping labels with minimal lookup Integrates Layer 2 switching and Layer 3 routing This diagram introduces how MPLS manages network traffic. MPLS is a high-performance method of forwarding packets (frames) through a network. It enables routers at the edge of a network to apply simple labels to packets (frames). ATM switches or existing routers in the network core can switch packets according to the labels with minimal lookup. MPLS integrates the performance and traffic management capabilities of Data Link Layer 2 (frame relay and ATM) with the scalability and flexibility of Network Layer 3 (IP) routing. MPLS offers additional benefits when applied to ATM networks. MPLS integrates IP routing with ATM switching to offer scalable IP-over-ATM networks.

4 MPLS/RSVP-TE Benefits
MPLS with RSVP-TE provides overall path control in network Use with constraint based routing Control over latency and delay variation Bridges gap between ability to deploy capacity versus current demand in existing network Use of MPLS allowed gathering measurement statistics on LSPs Probably more important than actual path control Provides ability to accurately measure traffic between router pairs Traffic volumes, latency, and delay variation Measure traffic between hubs, metros, and regions Measure asymmetry of flows, over time A time series depiction can be built to trend traffic for efficient investment and to provide required service MPLS became an enabler for the development of additional services L2 VPNs and L3 VPNs

5 Verizon Public IP AS 701 was initially implemented as an overlay over a dedicated frame relay network Path control was effected thru manipulating path of frame relay PVCs As capacity requirements increased, the network was migrated to an overlay over ATM The cost of this became untenable, as capacity requirements continued to increase MPLS with RSVP-TE deployed in EMEA (AS 702) in 1999 First deployment of RSVP-TE in production network Deployed in US (AS 701) in 2000 Deployed for traffic engineering to provide control over path selection that was not available thru L3 protocols Shortest path algorithm did not always provide optimal route MPLS technology has enabled the Verizon Public IP network to grow to be one of the largest in the world

6 Verizon IP Network 410 unique switch/router hubs (PoPs)
Our global IP network spans more than 446,000 miles across 150 countries on six continents and is backed by experienced sales and service reps around the globe. Verizon continues to invest in our facilities-based strategy to deliver the performance and reach to meet our customer’s needs from Small Business to Enterprise to Government to our Wholesale market segments of ISPs and leading content providers. 410 unique switch/router hubs (PoPs) Six continents, 150+ countries

7 Verizon Layer3 VPN Services: VBNS+ and Private IP
vBNS (very-high-performance Backbone Network Service) was established in 1995 Cooperative research and development agreement between Verizon (formerly MCI) and National Science Foundation (follow on to NSFnet) Evolved to a commercial product: vBNS+ for gov and edu market MPLS routing/switching implemented in network in 1999 Initially MPLS was implemented for traffic engineering L3VPN (RFC 2547) was implemented in 2001 There are approximately 40 nodes in 19 US cities, full mesh of TE LSPs Verizon PIP (Private IP) was established in 1999 Layer 3 VPN (RFC 4364), wide area network for business customers Quality of Service, strong SLAs, etc. Large global network There are approximately 625 nodes across 162 cities in 59 countries Uses LDP for label distribution, with partial mesh of LSPs Designed and supported by Verizon’s next generation engineering organization, it has been in existence for more than ten years; MPLS has been a principle switching technology within the vBNS+ platform for the past five years. The vBNS+ has a proven and history of extraordinary performance for numerous government clients who rely upon the network for vital/critical applications. Verizon recognizes that when customers entrust their critical operations to a network service, they are quite literally putting their ability to operate in the hands of the network provider. We take this responsibility seriously and are proud to report that during its nine years in operation, the vBNS+ network has provided an exceptionally high level of availability to customers large and small.” This is despite the evolution, expansion and upgrade of the entire service platform and all its elements, including the replacement and/or upgrade of every switch, router, and trunk which makes up the network. For example, in 1999, Verizon (formerly MCI) completed the transition from ATM to MPLS as the core switching service in the network without adversely impacting our customers’ service. In addition to the technical evolution of the physical components of the network, Verizon has continually led the way in delivering new and advanced services to our vBNS+ customers. In all cases, the advanced networking features and high performance of the vBNS+ network allow clients to enable new applications and next generation capabilities that go beyond traditional wide area networking.

8 Private IP Global Reach
This is the complete list of countries where Private IP is currently available. vBNS+ International coverage is supported by provisioning on Private IP routers with 6 gateways deployed back in the US. MP10163v5.03

9 Verizon Layer 2 Services: MAE® Services and Converged Packet Architecture (CPA)
MAE® Services established 1992 as metro Internet Exchange point Evolved into MPLS based national service for extended peering and L2 VPNs (VPWS), implemented in 2002 Service interworking (ATM, Frame Relay, and Ethernet), based on draft Martini pseudowires and draft Shah ARP Mediation Implemented across public internet within full mesh of GRE tunnels ISIS, RSVP-TE signaled LSPs, and LDP signaled pseudowires CPA supports Ethernet access and Ethernet services L2 VPNs: both EVPL (PWE3) and VPLS (RFC 4762) Quality of Service, strong SLAs, etc. Large global network There are approximately 115 nodes across 27 countries RSVP-TE used to signal LSPs Full mesh for EVPL and VPLS Currently 10,000+ LSPs

10 Lessons Learned Implementation defects significantly impact early perception of technology For AS 701, there was internal resistance to moving from ATM underlay network to MPLS When defects in the MPLS implementation on vendor equipment were encountered these initially viewed by some as defects in the technology

11 Lessons not Learned (VPLS)
RFC 4762: Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) Using Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) Signaling Hierarchy is managed thru HVPLS, specified within RFC RFC 4761: Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) Using BGP for Auto-Discovery and Signaling Hierarchy is managed thru route reflectors and multi-segment pseudowires Both approaches are currently in production in different service provider networks Some vendors have implemented both standards This increases to overall cost and complexity of technology and network development across the community Resolution and mitigation of differences is far more economic during protocol development than once into implementation Gateway function has high development and operational cost The added costs and complexity are continuously accretive

12 Lessons not Learned (RFC5085 – PW VCCV)
Pseudowire Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification (VCCV) – RFC 5085 Three modes of operation: (Type 1: PWE3 Control Word Bit, Type 2: MPLS Router Alert Label, Type 3: MPLS PW Label with TTL == 1 Mode is negotiated, so all three are optional Vendors, to this point, have not implemented all modes nor the same modes This leads to interoperability issues in mixed vendor networks Delays significantly availability of feature Adds to development and integration costs VCCV Mode Vendors Y Vendors X Control Word* Yes No Router Alert Label TTL Expiry*

13 Continuing Challenges
Latency sensitive customers These are typically financial customers that are sensitive to a 2ms increase or change in latency Require traffic to be on path with deterministic low latency Due to network event traffic may be rerouted, via Fast Reroute and the re-signaled LSP Paths are recalculated periodically to ensure low latency path Once optimal path is available, traffic is re-routed (make before break) to this path As this path could be significantly shorter (2 – 10ms), there will be out of order packets that may impact some hosts Nodes in network within the core, may carry a high number of LSPs Latency sensitive customers are requesting notification on any maintenance that will impact LSPs carrying their traffic

14 MPLS Going Forward MPLS has been an extremely successful protocol
It has been widely deployed and extended MPLS based networks and facilities to continue to grow and expand This growth is continuing and will continue for some time

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