4 Characterization Five Ways to Describe a Character Looks Thinks Acts SpeaksWhat others think
5 Character TypesDynamic: major character who is changed by conflict in the storyStatic: major character that does not experience basic character changesRound: character with many personality traits (many details given)Flat: character with few personality traits(few details given)
6 Developing CharacterDirect characterization: the narrator or a character in the story tells us what we need to know about a characterIndirect characterization: we find out about characters indirectly through thoughts, comments, or actions of the characters
7 Theme Universal meaning or lesson in a story “The theme is true love happens over the course of time.”
8 Irony A contrast between reality and expectation
9 Situational IronyWhat we expect to occur is different from what really happensExample: The fire department burns down.
10 Situational IronyEXAMPLE: The average cost of rehabilitating a seal after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska was $80,000. At a special ceremony, two of the most expensively saved animals were released back into the wild amid cheers and applause from onlookers. A minute later…
11 Situational IronyA minute later, they were both eaten by a killer whale.Why is this ironic?Discuss reasons with partner
12 Situational IronyThis is ironic because even though the group wanted the seals to lead a "natural" life in the wild, they probably didn't expect to see the seal's NATURAL cycle of life end within a minute of releasing them into the wild.
13 Situational IronyThis is ironic because even though the group wanted the seals to lead a "natural" life in the wild, they probably didn't expect to see the seal's NATURAL cycle of life end within a minute of releasing them into the wild.
15 Look at the picture below. With a partner, decide on a caption that gives an example of verbal irony.
16 Dramatic Irony The reader knows more than the characters know. Example: We know Cindy Lou shouldn’t believe the Grinch. However, she trusts him when he’s caught stealing the Christmas tree and all the decorations from her house.
17 Dramatic IronyShrek doesn’t know that Fiona has feelings for him, but the audience (and Donkey ) knows.
18 Dramatic IronyWith a partner, brainstorm a movie/story with examples of dramatic irony.Here are some titles that may help: