2 History 1776 the colonies declare independence 1803 the Louisiana Purchase;opens up the frontier.“War of 1812” against Britain; opens more land for resettlement.1820 Westward expansion in full swing.1840s California gold-rush
3 Romantic philosophy Emphasis on the individual Writing examines inner feelings and emotions of the individualRecognize personal intuition and imagination over reasonTired of reason and logicFocus on common people, their lives & experiencesWriting about frontier and experiences with nature
4 Romantic LiteratureCity/civilization represents moral ambiguity, corruption, death.Countryside represents independence, moral certainty, and health.Romantic hero: young, innocent, lover of nature, distrusts town-life, uneasy with women
5 TranscendentalismOriginated with German romantic philosopher Immanuel Kant.Definition: spirituality achieved through meditation and a close relationship with nature.Disgust for conformity and praised individualitySearch for the inner self through supernatural forces—transcend “normal” human experiences—optimistic about human natureCriticized materialism and “get ahead” work ethic
6 Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Optimist view of God: “God is good, and God works through nature.”Defined himself as a poet.Essays are a collection of memorable sentences rather than organized thoughts.“Trust thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron string.”Primary works: Nature, Self-Reliance
7 Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Lived at Walden Pond for 3 years( ) “I went to the woods to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.”Major works: Walden and “Civil Disobedience”
8 GothicsDefinition: Emphasis on the dark side of an individual and his reactions to the world..Pessimistic about human nature: searched human emotions, human actions, human motives, and human capacity for evil.
9 Gothic AuthorsWriting examines the deterioration of the heart under conditions of fear, greed, vanity, mistrust, and betrayal.Nathaniel Hawthorne ( )The Scarlet Letter, “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment,”“The Minister’s Black Veil,” etc.William Faulkner ( )“Spotted Horses,” “Absalom! Absalom!” “The Sound and the Fury,” “As I Lay Dying,” “A Rose for Emily”Flannery O’Connor ( )“The Life You Save May Be Your Own,”
10 Gothic Authors Edgar Allen Poe: Writing deals with the terror of the soul and the deterioration of the mind.He invented the horror story.He developed a “unified idea” for the short story concept.“The Cask of Amontillado,” “The Fall of the House of Usher,” “The Masque of the Red Death,” “The Raven,” etc.