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Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface

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1 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
5.1 User-Centered Design 5.1.1 Aim of User center design 5.1.2 Human-Computer Interaction Vs. User-Centered Design 5.2 Factors in Interface Design 5.2.1 Human Factors 5.2.2 Software Factors 5.2.3 Hardware Factors 5.3 HCI Design Models 5.4 Task Analysis 5.5 Design Cycle 5.5.1 Gathering Requirements and Analyzing Design 5.5.2 Designing 5.5.3 Coding 5.5.4 Testing and Validating 5.6 Need for Evaluation of Interface 5.7 The Process of Interface Analysis 5.7.1 Analyze the Users and Their Tasks 5.7.2 Evaluating a Centric Design 5.8 User Documentation 5.8.1 Issues in User Documentation 5.8.2 Creating User Documentation Copyright All Rights Reserved

2 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
User-Centered Design (UCD) User centered design is a philosophy and a process that places a person (user) at the center in the design process. UCD Also defined as a process those forces on cognitive factors such as learning, problem solving and human memory, etc. As they come into play during people’s interactions with things. User centered design concerns itself both with usefulness and usability. To design an interface that can induce in the user’s mind a correct model of the system, a user centered approach has to be adopted. User centered design mainly consists of three issues: users (steelworkers) have to be involved in each step of the design process; the design process is centered on the work activates to be supported rather than on the technological opportunities; Cycles of work analysis-design-prototype-evaluation have to be foreseen. Copyright All Rights Reserved

3 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
Aim of User Center Design It cuts the cost and increase user satisfaction and productivity. The main purpose of user centered design is to involving the user from the beginning during design process. The main factors are: Discovering the mental lend of users. Discovering their expectations. Include the user as the part of designing team. Observing the uses workplace. Analyzing the task of user. Taking feedback via walk with through, paper prototype, think aloud sessions and other methods. Copyright All Rights Reserved

4 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
User centered design seeks the answers of following questions: Who are the users of the product? What are the user’s tasks and goals? What are the user’s experience level with this thing, and thinks it What functions to the uses need from the product? What information might the users need and in what from they need it. How do the users think this product should work? How the design of the product can facilitates user’s cognitive process? Copyright All Rights Reserved

5 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
Factors in Interface Design Designing an interface is not merely a software engineering concept. It is more of a creative and artistic activity. By combining the engineering principles and methodologies with artistic view you can create a good GUI. The Human factors affect the design of a user interface. These factors are: Human factors Software factors Hardware factors Copyright All Rights Reserved

6 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
Human Factors Human factors or human factors engineering is the term mainly used in USA on place of ergonomics as used in Europe. Human factors is the study of human behavior, cognition, and ability. Research performed in human factors such as learning, memory recall, metaphors, consistency, and effects of system feedback are transferred into product design. Human factors techniques can be used to profile the user community, build product requirements, and ensure that valid data is collected and accurately interpreted. Often human factors research is delivered as design guidelines, style guides, and conformance check lists of do’s and don’ts in interface design. The most effective way to incorporate human factors is to include human factors specialists on the design team to assist with user interviews, requirements gathering, and user interface design. Software Factors Software factors that affect interface design concern the way the interface is designed, as well as the choices developers must make to create accurate and efficient software. The real world is huge and full of possibilities. All these possibilities cannot be emulated in the interface. Thus, many assumptions and simplifications are made about the user and the working environment, which limit these possibilities. Copyright All Rights Reserved

7 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
Hardware Factors Hardware factors deal with hardware support available in the users’ working environment. These factors determine the technical working environment. The hardware depends on financial constraints and the architectural setup of the work place of the user. For instance, if an interface requires 3D effects, the developer must be aware of the available hardware and the financial constraints of the customers. Task Analysis Task analysis is the process of analyzing the way the people perform their functions on things they do, the things they act on and the things they need to know. The task analysis is done on existing systems and procedures. The main tools of task analysis are observations in various forms. The purpose of task analysis is to provide the function in order to try to ensure that: they have been fully understood. nothing has been omitted. options about task order have been considered. Copyright All Rights Reserved

8 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
Design Cycle The prototyping paradigm technique begins with gathering information about the requirements of the user and his working environment. This is followed by a design phase. Next prototype or a trial product is developed from this design. The prototype of the GUI is presented to the user and testing is done. At this phase, the user may give more inputs for refinement. The whole process is repeated to build a prototype that is closer to the final product, after the inputs from the user. Designing a user interface is an iterative process that comprises of the following steps: Gathering requirements and analyzing design Designing Coding Testing and validating Copyright All Rights Reserved

9 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
The design process cycle is shown in following diagram: Copyright All Rights Reserved

10 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
The Process of Interface Analysis Because a good interface combines aesthetics, usability, and functionality, designing user interfaces is as much an art as it is a science. Following is a five-step process for analyzing and designing user interfaces: Analyze the users and their tasks. Identify the system’s user interfaces. Select a dialog type for each interface. Develop a prototype. Review and revise as needed. Copyright All Rights Reserved

11 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
User Documentation User documentation is the part of the user interface that describes how to use the system. User documentation may include the following components: A user guide that describes the system and explains its use. A reference card that summarizes basic functions and commands. Specialized guides that describe how to install the application or explain system error messages. Tutorials that instruct user in the system’s basic functionality. An on-line help system that basically replicates the user guide and assists users in understanding and using system features and functions. Copyright All Rights Reserved

12 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface
Creating User Documentation User documentation should be created concurrently with system design and construction. If you employ use case throughout your analysis and design and select the task-oriented approach, the user guide—the most common form of user documentation—will evolve as the system evolves. A task-oriented user guide describes all the manual procedures performed by uses and relates each user interface to the procedure that uses it. Each major task is treated as a chapter. Additional chapters may provide supplemental material, such as explanation of error messages or a glossary defining important terms. Copyright All Rights Reserved

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