Presentation on theme: "If Development is not Engendered, it is Endangered"— Presentation transcript:
1 If Development is not Engendered, it is Endangered To more systematically take into account gender norms and roles, and to design program interventions that take these gender norms and roles into account, it is important to have a general framework of key questions and steps to guide this process.In this presentation, we will first review key components of gender analysis, and then we will discuss how to use this in the context of developing and implementing programs (i.e., in “gender integration”).
2 Gender Concepts OPTIONAL EXERCISE—depends on timing. Exercise Ask: When you hear the word gender, what does it mean in the context of your work?Instructions: Write down a 1-2 sentence answer on these cards. When you are finished, turn your card over. If you are unsure, or do not know, please just say so on your card.After all have turned over their cards, say: Please exchange cards until I ask you to stop. Please read the statement on the card that you have now. (Once person has read a statement, tape to the wall.)Conclusion/Point:What we learn from this experience is that there are various ways to interpret gender. Gender issues and their implications may be different according to the the particular context and program.There is a standard definition, however, that is used for gender…
3 Gender…Refers to the economic, social, political, and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female.The social definitions of what it means to be a woman or a man vary among cultures and change over time.OECD, 1998FACILITATOR:Read definition and add: What is sanctioned, valued, and viewed as appropriate behavior is different by culture (what it means to be a man in Mexico is different than in Thailand); sub-culture (religious and ethnic groups); and age groups.These values and perceptions also change over time.Most of us are already quite familiar with the academic definitions of sex and gender:SEX refers to the biological state of being a male or female, whileGENDER refers to the culturally defined aspects of being a woman or a man.In every society, males and females are expected to behave in certain ways, and in every culture, those expectations are different. Through experience and tradition, societies determine what constitutes a “real man” or a “real woman” and what behaviors are “good” for men and what behaviors are “good” for women. These socially-ascribed behaviors and norms refer to GENDER. This is not a static concept—it evolves over time.These gender roles affect access to education and economic opportunities; access to decision-making power; access to services; and the health and well-being of boys and girls and men and women. Gender roles arise from socially-perceived differences, whereas sex is a purely biological concept.
4 Sex…Refers to the biological differences between males and females. Sex differences are concerned with males’ and females’ physiology.
5 Gender Equity & Equality Process of being fair to women and men, including using measures to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent men and women from operating on a level playing field.CIDA, 1996Gender EqualityThe state or condition that affords women and men equal enjoyment of human rights, socially valued goods, opportunities, and resources.SIDA, 1997You will often hear references made to Gender Equity and Gender Equality.The equity approach arose in the 1970’s and sought to increase women’s active participation in the development process. At that point, laws had been changed in many countries to grant women equal legal status as men. However, many women found that legal equality does not guarantee equal benefits. So the equity approach sought to address this by (1) trying to look at particular reasons why women were not benefiting equally from opportunities and (2) developing special programs for women in order to level the playing field.Equity is the means; equality is the result.
6 Gender Integration & Mainstreaming Refers to strategies applied in program assessment, design, implementation, and evaluation to take gender norms into account and to compensate for gender-based inequalities.Gender MainstreamingThe process of incorporating a gender perspective into policies, strategies, programs, project activities, and administrative functions, as well as institutional culture of an organization.
7 Women’s Empowerment & CME Improving the status of women to enhance their decision-making capacity at all levels, especially as it relates to their sexuality and reproductive health.Constructive Male EngagementInvolves men in actively promoting gender equity with regard to reproductive health, increases men's support for women's reproductive health and children's well-being, and advances the reproductive health of both men and women.
8 Homophobia & Heterosexism Fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuals or homosexual behavior or cultures. Homophobia also refers to the self-loathing by homosexuals as well as the fear of men who do not live up to society’s standards of what it is to be a “true man.”HeterosexismThe presumption that everyone is heterosexual and/or the belief that heterosexual people are naturally superior to homosexual and bisexual people.
10 Gender Integration Continuum See facilitators guide for talking points on the continuum
11 Requirements and USG HIV/AIDS Overview of USAID ADSRequirements and USG HIV/AIDSLegislation
12 USAID, Gender, and Development Through attention to gender issues, our development assistance programs will be more equitable, more effective and— ultimately—more sustainable.~ USAID Gender Plan of Action, 1996Let us now put gender in the context of USAID.The USAID Gender Plan of Action, 1996, states:“Through attention to gender issues, our development assistance programs will be more equitable, more effective and—ultimately—more sustainable.”
13 USAID, Gender, and Development ADS Gender AnalysisMANDATORY. Gender issues are central to the achievement of strategic plans and Assistance Objectives (AO) and USAID strives to promote gender equality... Accordingly, USAID planning in the development of strategic plans and AOs must take into account gender roles and relationships. Gender analysis can help guide long term planning and ensure desired results are achieved. However, gender is not a separate topic to be analyzed and reported on in isolation. USAID’s gender integration approach requires that gender analysis be applied to the range of technical issues that are considered in the development of strategic plans, AOs, and projects/activities.ADS (March 2010)More recent guidance comes in the form of the ADS (read slide)
14 ADS: Key Questions for Planning How will the different roles and status of women and men within the community, political sphere, workplace, and household (for example, roles in decision-making and different access to and control over resources and services) affect the work to be undertaken?How will the anticipated results of the work affect women and men differently?ADS (March 2010)The ADS outlines two key questions that should be addressed at these various steps of the planning/program cycle: Strategic planning, Activity Planning/Performance Monitoring, and Competitive Solicitations.
15 ADS Requirements, March 2010 Long-Term Planning: “USAID planning in the development of strategic plans and AOs must take into account gender roles and relationships. Gender analysis can help guide long term planning and ensure desired results are achieved. However, gender is not a separate topic to be analyzed and reported on in isolation. USAID’s gender integration approach requires that gender analysis be applied to the range of technical issues that are considered in the development of strategic plans, AOs, programs and activities.” ADSProject and Activity Planning: “All projects and activities must address gender issues in a manner consistent with the findings of any analytical work performed during development of the Mission’s long-term plan (see ) or for project or activity design…The conclusion of any gender analyses must be documented in the Activity Approval Document (AAD). If the AO team determines that gender is not a significant issue, this must be stated in the Activity Approval Document.” ADSThe relevant ADS sections, as of March 2010, are listed on this slide and the next, but here is an overview:ADS Gender Analysis Gender issues are central to the achievement of strategic plans Assistance Objectives (AOs). Accordingly, the process of planning for strategic plans and AOs must include gender analysis; especially by asking the two questions on the previous slide. Furthermore, the ADS states that gender considerations should be integrated into strategic plans, AOs, programs, and activities, rather than addressed as a separate issue.ADS : The design of all projects and activities must take gender analyses into account. Findings from gender analyses, such as any recommendations to overcome potential obstacles to achieving targeted results, may help to determine how gender can be addressed in the project or activity. The conclusion of gender analyses must be documented in the Activity Approval Document. If the AO Team determines that gender is not a significant issue, this must be stated in the Activity Approval Document.More specifically,The findings of gender analyses “must be integrated into the Statement of Work/requirements definition or the program description when the project or activity is to be implemented through an acquisition or award. This will better ensure that…the gender issues identified through the analysis are not overlooked, sidelined, or marginalized. When gender issues are fully integrated into a Statement of Work or the Program Description for a grant/cooperative agreement, they are an integral part of the evaluation/selection process…”“AO teams must ensure that potential implementers are capable of addressing the gender concerns identified in solicitations. This is done by including performance requirements regarding gender expertise and capacity in the solicitations, tasking offerors and applicants with proposing meaningful approaches to address identified gender issues, and reflecting these performance requirements in technical evaluation and selection criteria.
16 ADS Requirements, March 2010 Performance Indicators: “In order to ensure that USAID assistance makes the optimal contribution to gender equality, performance management systems and evaluations must include gender-sensitive indicators and sex-disaggregated data when the technical analysis supporting an AO, project or activity demonstrates thatThe different roles and status of women and men within the community, political sphere, workplace, and household (for example, roles in decision-making and different access to and control over resources and services) affect the activities to be undertaken; andThe anticipated results of the work would affect women and men differently.” (ADS )ADS Performance Indicators: Performance management systems and evaluations at the AO and project or activity levels must include gender-sensitive indicators and sex-disaggregated data when the gender analyses supporting the AO, project, or activity to be undertaken demonstrate that gender is relevant to the work to be undertaken.
17 ADS Requirements, March 2010 Issuance and Evaluation of Competitive Solicitations: Similar requirements for contracts (see ADS ) and grants/cooperative agreements/APS ( see ADS ).Contract or Agreement Officer must ensure that the requiring office integrates gender issues in the procurement request, or includes a rationale for not integrating gender.Gender should not be addressed as a stand-alone issue. Rather, solicitation documents must use the findings of gender analysis to integrate gender issues into the appropriate performance requirements (e.g., Program Description, key personnel qualifications, evaluation requirements, etc.).Contract or Agreement Officer must ensure that, if gender is integrated into performance components, that gender is also reflected in the corresponding technical evaluation or selection criteria.Gender should not be a separate evaluation or selection criteria. Rather, gender should be integrated into technical criteria for each performance component.ADS and : The solicitation documents for both contracts (listed in ADS ) and grants/cooperative agreements/APS (see ADS ) have similar requirements for the inclusion of gender issues. READ SLIDE.This slide taken from: Integrating Gender into Health Programs: A Guide to Implementing ADS Requirements. [NEED FULL CITATION]
18 Gender in the Foreign Assistance Framework Two gender sub-Key Issues are identified in the Operational Plan:Increasing Gender EquityReducing Gender-based ViolenceThe sub-Key Issues cut across all Functional ObjectivesAll individual-level indicators to be disaggregated by sexBuilding on the commitment and recognition of the importance of gender, as stipulated in the ADS, the 2007 Foreign Assistance Framework has identified gender as an important cross-cutting issue that is relevant The Operational Plan guidance states that: Gender itself is not a Key Issue. There are two sub-Key Issues that may be selected for reporting. The Sub-Key Issues are mutually exclusive of each other and therefore double-counting among the Sub-Key Issues is not allowed. The two sub-Key Issues referenced above are Increasing Gender Equity and Reducing Gender-Based Violence and Exploitation.Also specified in the guidance is that Operating Units consider several critical questions, among which is: "Gender implications and impact, which should be discussed in the Operational Plan where possible."The 2008 Performance Report guidance suggests that Operating Units discuss, as appropriate, gender factors critical to the success of the Program Element's activities. to all Objectives, Areas, and Elements. F also calls for all individual-level indicators to be disaggregated by sex.The information provided per mechanism in the Operational Plans must be inputted into the FACTS database, which will assist in tracking the extent to which gender is being integrated, as well as progress over time. It will also help to identify consistent gaps and those areas that may benefit from technical assistance. In addition, performance reports should include narrative on relevant gender activities and outcomes.Both the Operational Plan (OP) and Performance Report (PR) include the Gender sub-Key issues described above. Essentially, you plan out what gender activities you intend to do and then report on the results you achieved. The sub-key issue narratives describe gender-related activities for the Operating Unit (e.g. Global Health Bureau), while the key issue funding amounts are reported at mechanism level (e.g. contract, cooperative level, etcetera). The key issue narrative should capture program activities (OP), results achieved (PR), and justify funding levels (OP).The program information and reporting is used to inform Congress and other external audiences about USAID's work in gender.
19 Global Health Initiative: the Woman and Girl-Centered Approach Increases funding for maternal and child health, family planning, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS.Supports long-term, systemic changes to remove gender-related barriers to women’s participation in health-sector decisionmaking.Requires gender analysis for all USG-supported health programs.Integrates health programs with activities from other sectors (education, economic development, etc.).Seeks to improve monitoring, evaluation, and research.Includes a special focus on adolescent girls.Works with partner governments to support gender equity.The Global Health Initiative also recognizes the importance of increasing gender equity through health programs. Though the GHI calls its approach “women and girl-centered,” and the first principle of the Global Health Initiative says that women and girls must be at the center of any global health strategy; the program also recognizes that women and girls, men and boys all face poor health outcomes due to gender-related vulnerabilities. To implement a women and girl-centered approach, the Initiative will: Expand funding for health programs that serve women and girls; especially maternal and child health, family planning, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS.Support long-term and systemic changes that will remove economic, cultural, social, and legal barriers to women’s access to health services and participation in decisionmaking in the health sector.The Initiative requires all USG-funded health programs to conduct gender analyses and to involve women in all phases of program design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation; as well as involve men in advancing gender equity and improving health.The Initiative seeks to link women’s health services to education, economic strengthening, and other development programs.Further, the Initiative strives to routinely collect, analyze and report health data—disaggregated by sex and age– to determine gender-related issues and disparities. It will also monitor key indicators related to women’s health status, including those related to women’s decision-making, economic well-being and experience of violence. Additionally, the Initiative will support formative research to document barriers to improving women’s and girls’ health.The GHI will place a special emphasis on improving service delivery for adolescent girls, strengthen girl-friendly reproductive health services, promote work with adolescent boys to challenge harmful gender norms, and link with programs that address early marriage and in secondary school completion for girls.Finally, the Initiative will work with partner country governments to build on existing national gender plans of action to work toward improving women’s and girls’ health and increasing gender equity.
20 Gender and PEPFARSome of you may be familiar with PEPFAR—the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief[United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of ]Here, too, addressing gender inequities and norms has been recognized as critical to strengthening prevention efforts and helping to mitigate the impact of the epidemic. The second round of legislation on this – PEPFAR II – approved in 2008, continues the strong emphasis on gender and HIV.
21 USG Global Five-year HIV/AIDS Strategy (PEPFAR I) Recognizes gender inequality as driving HIV and contributing to the devastation of HIV/AIDSCalls for efforts to target men with messages that challenge norms about masculinityCalls for efforts to mitigate and reduce violenceGaps—especially in the areas of treatment and care
22 PEPFAR II vs. PEPFAR I: Increased Focus on Women and Girls “Gender” not mentionedRequires PEPFAR strategy to specifically address needs and vulnerability of women and girlsRequires reporting of indicators related to reaching women andgirls in annual reportsPMTCT emphasized and annual reports on PMTCT required; includes target of “meeting or exceeding the goal to reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 20 percent by 2005 and by 50 percent by 2010”(The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Reauthorization of PEPFAR, The United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act: A Side-by-Side Comparison to Current Law.)
23 PEPFAR II vs. PEPFAR I: Increased Focus on Women and Girls Addressing multiple concurrent sexual partnering as supported prevention activityIncludes greater emphasis and more explicit emphasis on women and girls, particularly related to PMTCT and families, and adds language about gender and gender related vulnerabilities to HIVChanges subtitle B of legislation from “Assistance for Children and Families” to “Assistance for Women, Children and Families” with target of 80% coverage for PMTCT, annual report on PMTCT, and establishment of PMTCT expert panelSpecifically requires that global HIV/AIDS prevention strategy address vulnerabilities of women and youth to HIV infection, and seek to reduce factors that lead to gender disparities in HIV(The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Reauthorization of PEPFAR, The United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act: A Side-by-Side Comparison to Current Law.)
24 PEPFAR II vs. PEPFAR I: Increased Focus on Women and Girls PEPFAR II, continued:Adds more detailed accountability measures on reaching women and girls and gender-specific accountability measuresRequires IOM to include assessment of efforts to address gender-specific aspects of HIV/AIDS, including gender related constraints to accessing services and addressing underlying social and economic vulnerabilities of women and men, in its evaluationIncludes sense of Congress concerning need and urgency of expanding range of female-controlled HIV prevention(The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Reauthorization of PEPFAR, The United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act: A Side-by-Side Comparison to Current Law.)
25 Gender in PEPFAR Strategy Two-pronged approach:Gender integration in all program areas (prevention, care, and treatment)Programming along five strategic, cross-cutting areasImplementation: 5-year country strategies, COP technical guidance and review, TA, and resources from Gender Technical Working Group (GTWG), gender focal points/advisorsPEPFAR I programs implemented a two-pronged approach to gender: (1) the integration of gender into all HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs; and (2) programming to address five cross-cutting gender strategic areas.The implementation of PEPFAR gender requirements are supported throughCountry program approaches to gender, articulated in 5-year strategies;Country Operational Plan (COP) technical guidance and review;TA and resources from the PEPFAR gender technical working group; andAn increasing number of gender focal points/advisors as past of country teams.
26 Senator Russell Feingold, May 2007 “Fighting the gendered dynamic that is frequently transmitted with the disease itself must become a critical component of any expanded HIV-prevention programs in the next phase of U.S. HIV/AIDS efforts.”The reauthorization legislation passed in 2008 further reinforces recognition of gender as central to HIV/AIDS programs and calls for intensified efforts to address how gender issues increase vulnerability to and exacerbate the impact of HIV/AIDS. This next phase will build on the work to date…Senator Russell Feingold, May 2007
27 Five Key Legislative Issues: PEPFAR I Increasing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and servicesReducing violence and coercionAddressing male norms and behaviorsIncreasing women’s legal protectionIncreasing women’s access to income and productive resourcesThe five cross-cutting, strategic areas reflect language in the original PEPFAR legislation from 2003.Specifically, PEPFAR asks that programsIncrease gender equity in HIV/AIDS programs;Reduce violence and coercion;Address male norms and behaviors;Increase women’s legal rights; andIncrease women’s access to income and productive resources.Interventions in these areas are described in the COP activity narratives and coded by area.
28 1. Increasing gender equity PEPFAR-supported programs should promote proactive and innovative strategies to ensure that men and women and girls and boys have access to prevention, care, and treatment services. This includes tailoring services to meet the unique needs of various beneficiary groups.
29 2. Addressing male norms and behaviors Men can play a critical role in promoting gender equity, preventing violence, and promoting sexual and reproductive health. Recognizing that men can either impede or promote health interventions, PEPFAR encourages country teams to develop programs that promote positive male engagement and behavior change.
30 3. Reducing violence and coercion Women who live in fear for their lives (and their children’s lives) and who are unable to make their own decisions about sex are at a greatly increased risk of becoming infected with HIV. … Reducing violence against women increases their access to services and their ability to negotiate safer sex and take advantage of education and employment activities.
31 4. Increasing women’s access to income and productive resources PEPFAR recognizes that women’s and girl’s lack of economic assets increase their vulnerabilities to HIV. Providing women with economic opportunities (increasing access to employment, training, and microfinance activities) empowers them to avoid high-risk behaviors, seek and receive healthcare services, and better care for their families.
32 5. Increasing women’s legal protection Many of the norms and practices that increase women’s vulnerability to HIV and limit their capacity to deal with its consequences are reinforced by policies, laws, and legal practices that discriminate against women. Women denied enforceable legal rights and protections, including property and inheritance rights, are often unable to meet the basic needs of survival for themselves and their children, increasing their vulnerability to HIV.
33 Gender Analysis & Integration Explain that to more systematically take into account gender norms and roles—and to design program interventions that take these gender norms and roles into account—it is important to have an overall general framework of key questions and steps to guide this process.Explain that, in this presentation, we will first review the key components of gender analysis and then discuss how to use the analysis in the context of developing and implementing programs (i.e., in “gender integration”).
34 Gender AnalysisNote that a key foundation for responding to gender barriers to program and health outcomes is “gender analysis.” Ask participants if they have heard this term to determine their understanding of it. Take several responses.
35 What is Gender Analysis? Gender analysis draws on social science methods to examine relational differences in women’s and men’s and girls’ and boys’roles and identitiesneeds and interestsaccess to and exercise of powerand the impact of these differences in their lives and health.Refer to what participants have shared, and note that in short, gender analysis is the process of identifying gender inequalities and determining their programmatic and developmental implications. That is, gender analysis identifies and examines the social constructions of what it means to be a woman and girl or man or boy and how these impact the lives and health of women and girls and men and boys.
36 Through data collection and analysis, it identifies and interprets … How does Gender Analysis help us design and manage better health programs?Through data collection and analysis, it identifies and interprets …consequences of gender differences and relations for achieving health objectives, andimplications of health interventions for changing relations of power between women and men.Specific to reproductive health (and the areas of focus for the training, such as safe motherhood), gender analysis seeks to understand these gender relations for how they impact on achieving health outcomes and also for how health interventions may also impact on outcomes related to gender equity.When possible, gender concerns should be treated as an integral part of the broad range of technical analyses conducted in preparation of the strategic plan rather than as a separate issue.
37 Different approaches, but two fundamental questions How will gender relations affect the achievement of sustainable results?How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women? (i.e., will it exacerbate inequalities or accommodate or transform gender relations?)At its heart, gender analysis seeks to answer two fundamental questions:How will gender relations affect the achievement of sustainable results?How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women?To answer these questions—which come from the ADS of USAID—it is necessary to conduct a gender analysis of the particular cultural and social context in which you work.Gender experts have developed a number of analytical tools to guide you through the analysis. Some are sector-specific and others can be used across different sectors. (An illustrative list of tools is provided in the reference section of the Gender Integration Manual.) Although there are different approaches and emphasis within gender analysis tools, gender analyses overall seek to answer these two fundamental questions.
38 To understand gender relations … Examine different domains of gender relationsPractices, Roles, and ParticipationKnowledge, Beliefs, and PerceptionsAccess to ResourcesRights and StatusPOWERTo understand gender relations more concretely, gender analysis approaches (and tools) often choose to focus on specific “aspects” or “slices” of social and cultural relations in a given context. The specific “aspects” or “slices” of social and cultural relations chosen for focus in an analysis are referred to as “domains.” Domains frequently analyzed in reproductive health programming include practices, roles, and participation; knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions (many of which are normative—that is, provide norms for what is appropriate behavior for women and men); access to assets; rights and status; and (related to all of these) power.Note: PEPFAR also has specified key areas of gender relations that need to be addressed to meet PEPFAR goals. These areas highlight specific concerns related to these broader domains. [Note to facilitator—if PEPFAR and HIV programming is a focus for participants, add a slide after this one that outlines the focus areas in the new legislation.]POWER
39 Different ContextsGender constraints and opportunities need to be investigated in specific contexts, as they vary over time and across …Social RelationshipsPartnershipsHouseholdsCommunitiesCivil society and governmental organizations/institutionsSociocultural ContextsEthnicityClassRaceResidenceAgeRemind participants that although we have been talking about gender and power relations, gender relations are linked to a host of other power relations at work in a specific context—such as power relations of ethnicity, class, race, and age. Gender relations also vary by context—that is, the type and degree to which a woman (or man) experiences gender constraints may be very different in a household and in a work context.Thus, gender relations and gender analysis vary according to the specific context in which they are occurring. Therefore, although some gender patterns may appear remarkably similar across contexts, it is critical to understand the specific relations (and ongoing changes and contradictions in these relations) across time, in different organizational contexts, and in different sociocultural contexts.
40 What different constraints and opportunities do women and men face? How do gender relations (in different domains of activity) affect the achievement of sustainable results?How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women (in different domains of activity)?For each domain of activity analyzed (such as the domains on the previous slide), a gender analysis then seeks to answer two basic questions:How do gender relations (in this particular domain of activity) affect the ability of a project to achieve its results?How will the proposed activities and results affect the relative status of men and women (in this particular domain of activity)?That is, how do gender relations in each of these domains present a potential opportunity or constraint to achieving project results, and how might a project’s planned activities and results affect these identified gender opportunities or constraints (and ultimately, the relative equality of women and men)?
41 Different Domains of Gender Analysis Knowledge, beliefsand perceptionsLegal rightsand statusAccess toassetsPractices, rolesand participationThe IGWG has adapted the following 4 domains as particularly useful for gender analysis related to RH and safe motherhood. In this framework, gender relations are analyzed across 4 domains to identify existing gender-based constraints and opportunities. These 4 domains do not encompass the total range of human activity, and there is some overlap among them, but they nevertheless provide a conceptual framework for addressing to the two questions posed earlier.The 4 domains that structure the gender analysis in this framework arePractices, Roles, and ParticipationKnowledge, Beliefs, and Perceptions (some of which are norms)Access to AssetsLegal Rights and StatusTaken together, these different relations in these domains shape the different levels of power to which women and girls and men and boys may have access in a given context. Power is thus in many ways a cross-cutting domain, but we also list it separately to ensure that it is considered concretely as well.41
42 Different Domains of Gender Analysis Knowledge, beliefsand perceptionsLegal rightsand statusPOWERAccess toassetsPractices, rolesand participationThe IGWG has adapted the following 4 domains as particularly useful for gender analysis related to RH and safe motherhood. In this framework, gender relations are analyzed across 4 domains to identify existing gender-based constraints and opportunities. These 4 domains do not encompass the total range of human activity, and there is some overlap among them, but they nevertheless provide a conceptual framework for addressing to the two questions posed earlier.The 4 domains that structure the gender analysis in this framework arePractices, Roles, and ParticipationKnowledge, Beliefs, and Perceptions (some of which are norms)Access to AssetsLegal Rights and StatusTaken together, these different relations in these domains shape the different levels of power to which women and girls and men and boys may have access in a given context. Power is thus in many ways a cross-cutting domain, but we also list it separately to ensure that it is considered concretely as well.42
43 Practices, Roles, and Participation Gender structures peoples’ behaviors and actions —what they do (Practices), the way they carry out what they do (Roles), and how and where they spend their time (Participation).ParticipationActivitiesMeetingsPolitical processesServicesTraining coursesPractices, Roles, and ParticipationThis domain refers to peoples’ behaviors and actions in life—what they actually do—and how this varies by gender. It encompasses not only current patterns of action but also the way that people engage in development activities. It includes attending meetings, training courses, accepting or seeking out services, and other development activities. Participation can be both active and passive. Passive participants may be present in a room where a meeting is taking place and therefore may be aware of information transmitted, but do not voice their opinions or play a leadership role. Active participation involves voicing opinions and playing an active role in the group process.Gender structures peoples’ behaviors and actions—what they do and the way they engage in reproductive health (and the particular program areas of training, such as safe motherhood) activities.Share points on slide:ActivitiesMeetingsPolitical ProcessesServicesTraining CoursesBased on the examples we have considered in the training and your own experiences, what are some of the differences in gender practices, roles, and participation that affect programs (in the focus area of the training, such as safe motherhood)?What are girls and women’s everyday practices? Participation in different types of meetings and other fora? Men’s everyday practices?How do these affect (the program focus area of the training, such as safe motherhood)?
44 Knowledge, Beliefs, and Perceptions Knowledge that men and women are privy to —who knows whatBeliefs (ideology) about how men and women and boys and girls should conduct their daily livesPerceptions that guide how people interpret aspects of their lives differently depending on their gender identityKnowledge, Beliefs, and Perceptions (many of which are normative, i.e., provide norms for what is seen as appropriate behaviors for women and girls and men and boys)This domain refers to people’s thoughts. It also involves understanding how people interpret aspects of their lives differently according to gender categories. This domain includesTypes of knowledge that men and women are privy to—who knows what based on their experiences and what is seen as appropriate to know;Beliefs (ideology) that shape gender identities and behavior and how men and women and boys and girls conduct their daily lives; many of these beliefs are normative—i.e., gender norms—that provide standards for what is seen as appropriate behavior and roles for women and girls and men and boys; andPerceptions that guide how people interpret aspects of their lives differently depending on their gender identity—whether they are women and girls or men and boys.What are some of the beliefs or perceptions that impact (the particular area of health programming participants are considering)—based on examples considered in the workshop or others from participants work? For example, in the case of safe motherhood:What are gender norms about girls and women’s knowledge about RH (and safe motherhood)? Men’s knowledge about these areas? About how urgently a local health clinic attends to a woman (with pregnancy complications who arrives for consultation and whether having lifesaving measures available for her is a priority)?How do these norms impact (the program area of the training, such as safe motherhood)?
45 Access to AssetsThe capacity to access resources necessary to be a fully active and productive participant in society (socially, economically, and politically).AssetsNatural and productive resourcesInformationEducationSocial capitalIncomeServicesEmploymentBenefitsAccessAccess refers to being able to use the assets necessary to be a fully active and productive participant (socially, economically, and politically) in society. It includes access to resources, income, services, employment, information, and benefits.Access toNatural and productive resourcesIncomeServicesEmploymentEducationSocial capital and resources (i.e., social connections between networks and individuals)InformationBenefitsCan anyone think of an example of how differential access impacts (the given reproductive health area of the training), especially related to the examples already discussed in this training or in their work? For example, in considering safe motherhood:Is there a difference between women and men when it comes to food? Information? Income (access to it) for transport or clinic fees?How do these affect (the program area of focus, such as safe motherhood)?
46 Legal Rights and Status Refers to how gender affects the way people are regarded and treated by both customary law and the formal legal code and judicial system.RightsInheritanceLegal documentsIdentity cardsProperty titlesVoter registrationReproductive choiceRepresentationDue processGender differences exist in legal rights and status, including differences in rights accorded to men and women in formal and customary legal systems, differences in how the judicial (or other law and customary systems) actually enforce or apply the law, and differences in recognition that certain rights even exist (at either the individual level where women or men may not recognize the existence of certain rights; or at the institutional level within written or applied laws, where certain rights are not recognized as “rights” in the first place).Based on materials we have discussed today or your experience, can you identifySpecific gender differences in rights and legal status;How these vary across other socio-cultural status (i.e., age); andHow these impact (the area of health programming we are considering today)?
47 PowerGender relations influence people’s ability to freely decide, influence, control, enforce, and to engage in collective actions.Decisions about …One’s bodyChildrenAffairs of household, community, municipality, and stateUse of individual economic resources and incomeChoice of employmentVoting, running for office, and legislatingEntering into legal contractsMoving about and associating with othersPowerTaken together, these four domains ultimately affect the ability of people to decide, influence, control, and enforce a decision—that is, the ability of people to have the power to make decisions freely and to exercise power over one’s body and within an individual’s household, community, municipality, and the state. This includes the capacity of adults to decide about the use of household and individual economic resources, income, and their choice of employment. It also encompasses the right to engage in collective action, including the determination of rights to and control over community and municipal resources. Finally, it includes the capacity to exercise one’s vote, run for office, be an active legislator, and to enter into legal contracts.Specific areas of control over decisions includeOne’s bodyChildrenAffairs of the household, community, municipality, and stateThe use of individual economic resources and incomeChoice of employmentVoting, running for office, and legislatingEntering into legal contractsMoving about and associating with othersAre there any other domains of decision making that are not included on this list but may impact on (the area of reproductive health being considered for the training, such as safe motherhood), as well as broader health and well-being?For instance, how do power relations—or constraints to the ability to make decisions—affect (the program areas being considered, such as safe motherhood)?What are some examples from the cases already discussed in the training and in participants own experiences of a lack of power and control? How do these affect (the program area being considered, such as safe motherhood)?How does gender-based violence relate to power and control? How does it impact (the program area being considered, such as safe motherhood)?2005 Kevin McNulty, Courtesy of Photoshare
48 In short, Gender Analysis reveals … Gender-based OpportunitiesGender-based Constraints= gender relations(in different domains) that facilitate men’s or women’s access to resources or opportunities of any type.= gender relations(in different domains) that inhibit men’s or women’s access to resources or opportunities of any type.Summarize that, in short, gender analysis seeks to systematically reveal the gender-based constraints (and sometimes opportunities) to achieving a particular program objective. To systematically reveal these constraints and opportunities, gender analysis usually focuses on specific domains (such as the 4 we have just reviewed).
49 Integrating Gender into the Program Cycle Explain that we now want to briefly consider the so what of gender analysis—that is, how to move from analysis to addressing gender barriers and opportunities (i.e., to integrating gender) within programs.Ask participants: In considering the development of specific programs, when should gender analysis occur?Take participants responses. Emphasize that it is important that gender analysis occur at all phases of a program and that it is important to ensure deliberate follow through and “integration” of gender in all phases of programming.
50 Strategic Information and Program Life Cycle ASSESSMENTWhat is the nature of the (health) problem?1EVALUATIONHow do I know that the strategy is working? How do I judge if the intervention is making a difference?STRATEGIC PLANNINGWhat primary objectives should my program pursue to address this problem?253Explain that in terms of a the classic program cycle, gender needs to be integrated into each step of the program cycle.Explain that, in practice,We often start with gender-blind objectives, although ideally we would start with analysis to inform these objectives.Wherever we start, it is critical that we conduct gender analysis (step 1) to identify gender-based constraints and opportunities to meeting health objectives and addressing gender inequalities.Having conducted gender analysis, we can then come up with a gender-integrated objective or a sub-objective (to address a specific gender-based constraint or opportunities that a program’s strategic planning will need to address) (step 2).And then we can design specific activities to address this gender-based constraint or objective (step 3).And then we can also design specific indicators to monitor and evaluate changes in this gender-based constraint or objective (steps 4 & 5).Importantly, having completed this integration process and learned the results, there is a chance to re-evaluate and understand the actual impact—and any unintended consequences (positive or negative)—so that future programming can be adjusted.4DESIGNWhat strategy, interventions, and approaches should my program use to achieve these priorities?MONITORINGHow do I know the activities are being implemented as designed? How much does implementation vary from site to site? How can the program become more efficient or effective?
51 Moving from Analysis to Action Based on the analysis of gender constraints and opportunities . . .Specify sub-objectives and activitiesTie indicators to change in specific gender constraints and opportunitiesExplain that, in other words, in the context of a particular program, we move to action by first conducting a gender analysis to specify particular gender-constraints or opportunities. These gender-based constraints or opportunities then help to identifySpecific gender-integrated objectives or sub-objectives for changes in gender constraints or gender opportunities;Activities to address these gender constraints and gender opportunities; andIndicators to measure changes in these gender constraints and gender opportunities.
52 Integrating Gender Into Programming (Table 1) Program goal and/or overall health objective: ______________________________________________________Step 1: Conduct a gender analysis of your program by answering the following questions for yourprogram goal or objective.A. What are the key gender relations inherent in each domain (the domains are listed below) that affect women and girls and men and boys?B. What other potential information is missing but needed about gender relations?C. What are the gender-based constraints to reaching program objectives?D. What are the gender-based opportunities to reaching program objectives?Be sure to consider these relations in different contexts—individual, partners, family and communities, healthcare and other institutions, policiesPractices, roles, and participationKnowledge, beliefs, perceptions(some of which are norms):Access to assets:Legal rights and status:Power and decision making:Note that to facilitate this integration in programs, we have developed 2 worksheets to help guide the process.Direct participants to Table 1.First, walk participants through Table 1, identifying the various components. Note: The numbers here link to the first step (step 1—assessment) of the program cycle.Then ask participants to consider a concrete example (case study that is written or from the movie or their own project context).Supply the participants with a sample overall program goal or health objective (related to the exemplary case study being used): For example, in the case of the safe motherhood module and the movie shown, this could be “To ensure timely access to high-quality emergency obstetric care for all pregnant women.” (Have this objective written on a prepared flipchart.)Ask the participants to identify the following:1st column—Key gender relations in each of the 4 domains + power that can be identified from the case study or other specific context being considered. Probe to be sure that women and men are considered and that different levels are considered. (Record key highlights on a flipchart that looks like column A.)2nd column—Having identified key information from the case study, ask participants to identify any additional/missing information that might help the program understand the gender barriers or constraints to safe motherhood. (Record a couple on a flipchart that looks like column B.)3rd column—Gender-based constraints for the woman, for the men. Based on the gender relations identified, ask participants to identify which are key gender constraints for the SM program (or the specific case study being considered). Ensure that participants look across different domains and consider a few different levels. (Record a couple on a flipchart that looks like column C.)4th column—Gender-based opportunities for the woman, her spouse. Based on the gender relations identified, ask participants to identify any that could be key gender opportunities for the SM program (or the specific case study being considered). Ensure that participants look across different domains and consider a few different levels. (Record a couple on a flipchart that looks like column D.)
53 Integrating Gender into Programming (Table 2) Steps 2-5: Using the information you entered in Table 1, answer the following questions for your program goal/objective.Step 2. What gender-integrated objectives can you include in your strategic planning to address gender-based opportunities or constraints?Step 3. What proposed activities can you design to address gender-based opportunities or constraints?Steps 4 & 5. What indicators for monitoring and evaluation will show if (1) the gender-based opportunity has been taken advantage of or (2) the gender-based constraint has been removed?Direct participants to Table 2, explaining that based on the gender analysis in Table 1, we can now consider specific sub-objectives, activities, and indicators.Walk participants through the use of Table 2, identifying the various components (and noting their tie to steps 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the program cycle).Then ask participants to continue with the example from the movie earlier in the day.Ask participants to choose one priority gender-based constraint to the SM program (or other program being considered) identified in Table 1.Related to this constraint, ask participants to identify the following:1st column—A specific sub-objective related to a change they would like to see in this gender constraint. (Record on a flipchart that looks like the 1st column, Table 2.)2nd column—1-2 sample activities that could help achieve this objective. (Record on a flipchart that looks like the 2nd column, Table 2.)3rd column—A sample indicator that would indicate a decrease in, or removal of, this gender barrier. (Record a couple on a flipchart that looks like the 3rd column, Table 2.)Finally, ask the group to consider where on the continuum they would place their brainstormed activities.Ask participants if they have any questions or comments about Table 2 or the overall suggested process of using Tables 1 and 2.
54 Small Group Work Instructions for Exercise Read your assigned case study, considering your group’s focusSee flipchart for your group’s detailsComplete Table 1, identifying gender-based opportunities, constraints, and missing informationComplete Table 2, identifying gender sub-objectives, activities, and indicatorsRecord highlights of your responses on flipchart paperReview the instructions for the exercise. Explain that groups will have 60 minutes to complete both Tables 1 and 2 and that each group should complete both tables for their case study (although each group only needs to prepare flipcharts and present on one of the two tables, as assigned per the instructions on the slide).
55 Getting Started: Available Resources USAID Interagency Gender Working GroupUSAID Global Health our_work/global_health/USAID Women inDevelopment Officeour_work/cross-cutting_ programs/wid/PEPFAR Gender Technical Working GroupUSAID staff have several sources of support for increasing efforts to integrate gender concerns into projects and programs:First, the IGWG is a network of USAID and cooperating agencies that promotes gender equity within USAID’s population, health, and nutrition programs. The IGWG has a collection of resources, including a virtual library of its reports and studies on gender and development, and a listserv and website available to all. The IGWG also offers training on gender and development for USAID and CA staff.USAID’s Women in Development Office works to ensure that women participate in and benefit from all of USAID’s programs (particularly those related to democracy and legal reform, girls’ education, and economic growth). It provides technical assistance to Missions to help achieve this goal, across multiple sectors.Finally, the PEPFAR Gender Technical Working Group provides country-level technical assistance to US government colleagues in the area of HIV/AIDS.2006 Elizabeth Neason