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Providing Feedback and Evaluating Students

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1 Providing Feedback and Evaluating Students
Instructor Development Course : Session # 4

2 Objectives Understand the importance of providing feedback in the learning process, and define the various types of feedback Describe a proven method of systematically evaluating the learner’s performance in the classroom setting Provide an overview of ways to give feedback to the learner Note the importance of having student evaluations of courses.

3 Module Outline 1. Importance of Feedback
2. Evaluating the Students Performance 3. Providing Feedback 4. Student Evaluations of Courses, Clinical Rotations, and Faculty

4 I. Importance of Feedback

5 What is Feedback ? Information you provide to students about their performance that is intended to guide and improve their future performance. Formative: Informational Summative: Evaluation

6 Feedback Positive feedback should be given more than negative
Intensive feedback to students improves their learning and ultimately their performance Effective feedback requires mutual understanding of goals and objectives

7 Feedback Inadequate feedback can be detrimental to a student’s performance

8 Need for Feedback Assessment informs, and is informed by, teaching.
Student’s performance depends on it. It is the basis for optimal educational learning.

9 Feedback Barriers Lack of direct observation
Lack of clearly stated standards No consistent vocabulary Concern about emotional reaction Lack of role models in one’s own training

10 Feedback Facilitators
Goals should be mutually understood and accepted Orient the student to your style Understand the students’ prior experiences with feedback Maintain a positive learning environment Arrange the proper setting for feedback

11 II. Evaluating the Student’s Performance

12 Communication Feedback
Focus on the performance, not the performer Should be routine and immediate Think aloud 50

13 Communication Feedback
Use “I” statements. Let the student tell you how they think they did first. No premature feedback: Let them finish their story. Important Principle : “Praise in Public, Perfect in Private” Make the feedback personal “I think that was a good intubation” Don’t get lost in the third person “We have been observing that your behavior is” Ask the student how they think they did. 51

14 Constructive Feedback and “I” Messages
Face-to-face conversation with a student about something that he / she has not done well. Instructor must obtain the facts before providing direction to resolve the problem. “I” Messages “I” messages are the preferred way to provide constructive feedback. They are usually more effective than “you” messages because they are non-judgmental. They report how less than desirable behavior is making the faculty feel and how the behavior is having an impact on the setting or the patient.

15 Constructive Feedback Characteristics I
Description Give immediate feedback Delay tends to reduce effectiveness Show concern for helping others The concern for the other makes feedback more acceptable to the receiver Be descriptive rather than evaluative Facts are more acceptable than judgments

16 Constructive Feedback Characteristics II
Description Describe the effects Useful feedback states how the person’s behavior affects you and the patient Be specific rather than general Use concrete events not assumptions about the receiver Give feedback when the receiver is ready to accept it Ensure that the feedback is aligned with situation and the nature of relationship between sender and receiver

17 Constructive Feedback Characteristics III
Description Focus on behavior Describe clear, outward actions rather than try to attribute inner motives of the receiver Give feedback only on matters the receiver is able to do something about Feedback on something outside of the receiver’s control leads to resentment and feelings of helplessness

18 Learner Perceptions Most students find they are treated better when they appear competent, even when they are not. Disclosing their needs means punishment. Hiding their needs means rewards. how you provide feedback will determine whether your learners will reveal their needs to you. 33 42 53 48

19 Getting ready to teach : A Checklist
1. Clarify behavioral expectations 2. Set goals 3. Where and when will teaching occur ? 4. Explicitly assess each student 5. Feedback : decide where / when / who / how 7. Evaluation: Learner and Teacher

20 More on Feedback When, how, and by whom should feedback occur in your teaching setting ?

21 III. Providing Feedback

22 How should one give feedback?
Be specific Be positive when deserved Do not demean when being critical Be understanding about things that can’t be changed Be well-timed and proactive 32 41 52 47

23 Three-Step Formula for a Feedback Session
1. Ask the learner for self-evaluation 2. Provide your feedback 3. Outline a plan of action

24 Formula for Feedback I Ask the learner for self-evaluation
“What are your areas of strength ?” “What are your areas of challenge ?” Prompting may be necessary : Data gathering (writing and reading) Professionalism External distracters Shortcomings (speech impediment, shy)

25 Formula for Feedback II
Provide your feedback In context of student comments Descriptive, not evaluative (behaviors) Specific (behaviors) Focus on issues the student can control Limited in amount Address student goals

26 Formula for Feedback III
Outline a plan of action Focus on behaviors Specific Limited Achievable Measurable

27 Principles of Feedback
Identify learning objectives Make a feedback friendly environment Prioritize the feedback you give Respond to student’s self-assessment Objective data - specific behaviors Validate the student - positive feedback Establish a plan

28 Student Evaluation The following discussion will be of the student evaluation tool that was developed in June 2009 by the AFAMS Faculty. < Separate Discussion >

29 IV. Student Evaluation of Courses and Instructor

30 Goals of Student Evaluations
Provide the students input into their own education Determine if the students are receiving the training they want and need Improve the course, rotation, or faculty Allow recognition of instructors who are providing exemplary training

31 Timing of Student Evaluations
Turning in the evaluation form is required : On the last day of the course or rotation After the course or rotation but before the grade is issued At the end of the class year

32 Options to Consider for Evaluations by Students
Using the same forms as the residents use Having a mid-course evaluation and/or having an evaluation at the end of the course Having an “exit interview” This might require a separate evaluation form This could be with any of the instructor the course director This could be instead with another instructor in the department who then provides an anonymous feedback report

33 Learner Evaluations Structural Components of Courses Which Students Should Evaluate Faculty teaching Faculty clinical care Supervising residents’ teaching and clinical care Didactics and other teaching materials Clinical caseload and case distribution Goals / expectations

34 Evaluations of Faculty by Students I
Having a separate form for each student The student should specify how much time or how many cases he had with each faculty rated Having a single form for all the instructors with a number rating rank for each faculty Having an exit interview with the course director There should be focus on the best and worse teachers There should be an evaluation option if there is a conflict between the student and the director

35 Evaluations of Faculty by Students II
Having an exit interview with a person not in the same department who then prepares an anonymous evaluation report sent back to the director Separating the timing of grading the student and turning in the evaluation

36 Student Evaluations of Faculty: Main Categories
Teaching ability Teaching effectiveness Interest and enthusiasm for teaching Clinical ability Professional behavior Interactions with other students Interactions with other healthcare personnel Role modeling

37 Use of the Student Evaluations
The most intense and complete review should be by the course director There should be independent review by the department director Evaluations should be combined into a summary annual report for all the faculty There should also be higher level review of evaluation summaries to make comparisons between different departments and study the overall education performance and mission of the institution

38 Analysis of the Student Evaluations of Instructors
These need to be co-reviewed by the course director and the department director The student evaluations should be correlated with evaluations of the same instructor The ratings could be used as part of the academic promotion or salary increase for faculty The ratings could be used to issue a faculty teaching certificate or award or prize

39 Faculty Development Course : Session #4
END MODULE Faculty Development Course : Session #4

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