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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Content Standards in an International Context William H. Schmidt Michigan State University

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education The Economy Has Changed…Have Our Schools? 40 45 50 55 60 65 19601970198019902002 Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution Non-routineInteractiveNon-routineAnalytic Routine Cognitive Routine Manual Non-routine Manual Sources: Levy and Murnane; Schleicher, 2007 Skills Demanded by the U.S. Economy

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education What Americans Value Rowing 1Korea550 2Finland548 3Japan547 4New Zealand533 5Australia530 6Canada529 7Belgium525 8Switzerland521 9Netherlands520 10France519 11Denmark517 12Czech Republic516 13Germany514 14Sweden509 15Austria506 16Iceland505 17Hungary501 18Ireland499 19Luxembourg494 20Slovak Republic492 21Norway490 22Poland487 23Spain482 24United States477 25Portugal470 26Italy470 27Greece449 Basketball 1Finland546 2Canada534 3New Zealand529 4Australia528 5Ireland527 6Korea525 7 United Kingdom523 8Japan522 9Sweden516 10Austria507 11Belgium507 12Iceland507 13Norway505 14France505 15United States504 16Denmark497 17Switzerland494 18Spain493 19Czech Republic492 20Italy487 21Germany484 22Hungary480 23Poland479 24Portugal479 25Greece474 26Luxembourg441 27Mexico422 Swimming 1Finland563 2Canada534 3Japan531 4New Zealand530 5Australia527 6Netherlands525 7Korea522 8Germany516 9 United Kingdom 515 10 Czech Republic 513 11Switzerland512 12Austria511 13Belgium510 14Ireland508 15Hungary504 16Sweden503 17Poland498 18Denmark496 19France495 20Iceland491 21United States489 22 Slovak Republic 488 23Spain488 24Norway487 25Luxembourg486 26Italy475 27Portugal474 Triathlon 1Finland548 2Korea547 3Netherlands531 4Switzerland530 5Canada527 6Japan523 7New Zealand522 8Belgium520 9Australia520 10Denmark513 11Czech Republic510 12Iceland506 13Austria505 14Germany504 15Sweden502 16Ireland501 17France496 18United Kingdom495 19Poland495 20Slovak Republic492 21Hungary491 22Luxembourg490 23Norway490 24Spain480 25United States474 26Portugal466 27Italy462 Sources: PISA 2004, 2007 U.S. Rankings on Olympics U.S. Ranks 15th U.S. Ranks 21st U.S. Ranks 24th U.S. Ranks 25th ReadingScience Problem Solving Math U.S. Rankings on PISA

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Elementary Students’ Performance on a Fractions Problem

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Elementary & Middle School Students’ Performance on a Fractions Problem

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education High School Students’ Performance on a Mathematics Literacy Problem

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Average performance of 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply High science performance Low science performance … 18 countries perform below this line

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Instructional Content Constructs Curricular Coherence Curricular Structure Curricular Focus Exposure Time (OTL) Curricular Rigor Level of Cognitive Complexity

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Top Achieving Countries’ Mathematics Curriculum

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education 21 States’ Mathematics Standards

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Distribution of Mean District IGP for PROM/SE Mathematics Classes by Grade

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Distribution of Mean District IGP for PROM/SE Mathematics Classes by Grade

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Instructional Days Spent on Selected Areas of Mathematics at Elementary and Middle Grades

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Fundamentals of Algebra Advanced Algebra Algebra I Algebra IA Algebra IB Algebra IC Algebra I Hons. Basic Algebra I Elementary Algebra Essentials of Algebra Introduction to Algebra Enrich. Algebra Are All Algebra Courses the Same?

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Academic Math I Accel. Math I Alt. Math Basic Math Consumer Math Contemporary Math Corrective Math Fundamentals of Math General Math Math Skills Life Skills Math Math Proficiency Transitional Math Unified Math’ Tech. Math Voc. Math Senior Math What Mathematics is Covered in These Courses?

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Percent of Population with HS Degree or Equivalent % Notes: 1) Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes; 2) Year of reference 2004; 3) Including some ISCED 3C short programmes; 4) Year of reference 2003. Source: Schleicher 2007 As Others Rise to the Challenge, U.S. Advantage Drops13 1 27 1 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s

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© 2006 Michigan State University, Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education Even in Higher Education, the World is Catching up… Note: Net graduation rate is calculated by summing the graduation rates by single year of age in 2005. Year of reference 2004. Source: OECD 2007 15 2 2005 1995 College Graduation Rates %

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