Presentation on theme: "RE-THINKING ACCOUNTABILITY Social Accountability and the Search for More Effective Public Expenditure Jeff Thindwa Participation and Civic Engagement."— Presentation transcript:
1 RE-THINKING ACCOUNTABILITY Social Accountability and the Search for More Effective Public ExpenditureJeff ThindwaParticipation and Civic Engagement Group,Social Development Department, The World Bank
2 What is Accountability? The obligation of power-holders to account for or take responsibility for their actions.“Power-holders” are those who hold political, financial or other forms of power.Two key areas of accountability: government accountability (accountability of public officials and employees) and corporate accountability
3 What is ‘Social Accountability’? An approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which it is ordinary citizens and/or civil society organizations who participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountability.
4 Social accountability mechanisms refer to the range of methods, tools and choices to ensure greater accounting to citizens for public actions and outcomes.They include: citizen participation in public policy-making, participatory budgeting, public expenditure tracking, citizen monitoring of public service delivery, citizen advisory boards, lobbying and advocacy campaignsThey are hence demand-driven, and operate from the bottom up.Also sometimes referred to as “external” or “vertical” mechanisms of accountability.
5 Why Social Accountability Is Important Good GovernanceDevelopment EffectivenessEmpowerment
6 What Has Gone Wrong? The Governance Crisis Poor Access to Public Services– InefficiencyIndifference, Collusion with vested Groups- Non ResponsivenessRampant corruption, Extortion by `Agents & Middlemen’- Weak AccountabilityLoose Systems & Weak Integrity- Abuse of discretion
7 …….The Service Delivery Problem? Services do not benefit the poorestResources not delivering resultsIncreasing resources is not the only solutionNeed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public expenditure
8 The Thinking of the WDR 2004 Possible Roots of Problem: WDR2004 – “Making Services Work for Poor People”Possible Roots of Problem:Governments spend on the wrong goods and people – Budget Allocation ProblemResources fail to reach service providers or users Expenditure Tracking ProblemWeak incentives for effective service delivery Problem of Monitoring/AccountabilityDemand-side constraints- Problem of Participation/Awareness
9 Development outcomes: the reality …but, there are many weak links in implementation, and much needs to come together to make services work & produce desirable outcomesCentral GovtLeakage of FundsPoliciesInstitutional incentivesLocal GovtInappropriate spending (e.g. high teacher salaries; Insufficient supply of textbooksProvidersPublic financingImplementation capacityInformation & transparencyInstitutional incentivesClientsLow-quality instructionCapacity & incentivesCurriculum & technologyMonitoring & evaluationPrimaryeducationLack of demandBenefitsAbility to payIntra-household behaviorCommunity norms
10 Unbundling Service Delivery – the WDR 2004 Approach Participatory Public Expenditure Management
11 Why Weak Collective Response? Lack of EXIT optionsPolitical ManipulationThreat of ReprisalInformation BarriersLow / No Trust in any formal mechanism
12 How to Make a Change From Coping to ‘Voices’ by Citizens From Protest to Analysis and EngagementFrom Ad Hoc Responses to SystematicActionCreating “win-win” situations
13 Participatory Public Expenditure Management Facilitates the institutionalization of social accountability mechanisms into the decision-making of public institutions and policy, and leads to more sustainable poverty reduction outcomes.
14 Performance Monitoring is what the training this week will focus on Performance Monitoring is what the training this week will focus on. Specifically-Community Based Performance MonitoringTraining facilitators to build capacities of local communities to evaluate how public spending on social services and budget reform programs actually perform and impact on the lives of the people, specifically, the poor, in the context of SPA II/PRSPThe community score card process is one instrument for helping bringing about such capacity
15 The Four Components of the Community Scorecard Process Input Tracking ScorecardInterface MeetingPerformance ScorecardSelf-Evaluation Scorecard
16 Community Score Card Methodology Allows for… Tracking of inputs or expenditures (e.g. availability of drugs)Monitoring of the quality of services/projectsGenerating benchmark performance criteria that can be used in resource allocation and budget decisionComparison of performance across facilities/districtsMechanisms of direct feedback between providers and usersBuilding local capacityStrengthening citizen voice and community empowerment.
17 Summary of Steps in Community Scorecard Process Preparatory GroundworkCommunity GatheringInput Tracking ScorecardPerformance ScorecardDivide into focus groupsInformation on entitlements/ budgetsDevelop input indicatorsCollect evidence on input use“Transact Walk”Record dataDivide into focus groupsDevelop performance indicatorsFinalize indicators (5-8 max.)Performance scoring by groupsVerify High/Low ScoresRecord dataInterface MeetingSelf-Evaluation ScorecardFeedback and DialogueAccountabilityEfficiencyReformTransparencyEmpowermentDevelopment