Presentation on theme: "Directing the Actors: Teaching Comprehension in the Context of a Research Project Sharon B. Kletzien West Chester University of Pennsylvania READING, WRITING,"— Presentation transcript:
Directing the Actors: Teaching Comprehension in the Context of a Research Project Sharon B. Kletzien West Chester University of Pennsylvania READING, WRITING, AND CONTENT: Supporting Comprehension and Engaging Children With Research Projects that Motivate Them to Learn Symposium IRA Atlanta 2008
Comprehension Can be taught in all contents using informational text Too important to be left to reading time Strategy instruction can help students learn to comprehend
Comprehension Strategies Should be taught in context – not in isolation Should be taught as a means of understanding – not as an end in themselves Should be taught with understanding that strategy use is idiosyncratic depending on text, reader, and purpose
Comprehension Strategies Useful in Informational Text Before Reading –Accessing Prior Knowledge –Predicting –Questioning Kletzien & Dreher, 2004
Comprehension Strategies Useful in Informational Text During reading –Making connections –Questioning –Visualizing –Inferencing –Using text structures to identify major ideas –Paraphrasing –Clarifying Kletzien & Dreher, 2004
Comprehension Strategies Useful in Informational Text After reading –Summarizing –Creating visual representations (pictures, graphs, etc.) Kletzien & Dreher, 2004
Strategy Instruction Declarative knowledge – what it is Procedural knowledge – how to do it Conditional knowledge – when to use it
Strategy Instruction Explain what the strategy is Explain how to do it Give examples of when it might be useful Model numerous examples, inviting the child to begin using the strategy with you Gradually release responsibility for using the strategy to the child
Paraphrasing Putting the text into ones own words –Translating the information into personal speech –Connecting with ones prior knowledge Different from summarizing Different from retelling
Summarizing Reduce the text to approximately 1/3 Reduce lists to a general statement Select a topic sentence (or construct one) Delete redundancy Delete unimportant information (Brown, Campion, Van Dijk, 1981)
Retelling Use structure of the author Use language of the text
Paraphrasing Translating text into ones own way of saying it Puts emphasis on understanding what one has read If one cannot put what one has read into ones own words, chances are that it has not been understood.
Paraphrasing Provides a way to monitor comprehension Connects prior knowledge with the text Encourages deeper processing of text
Monitoring Comprehension Jason –Fourth grade –Fair word recognition –Could retell using the authors words –Could not respond to comprehension questions or discuss concepts
Connecting Prior Knowledge By searching for ones own words to express an idea, one must access similar concepts thus connecting what is being read with what has already been learned.
Deeper processing of text By accessing prior knowledge, new knowledge can be incorporated Instead of creating a text base, a reader creates a situation model incorporating new and known information (Kintsch, 1998)
Deeper processing of text Jimmy –Fourth grade –Quick rate –Adequate retelling of narrative –Unable to comprehend complex material –Uses prior knowledge rather than text-based information to discuss informational texts
Deeper Processing Taught to slow his reading down for more complex material Taught to integrate visual material (graphs, illustrations, etc.) with text Taught to reread if unable to paraphrase
Deeper Processing Its telling you if you want to know how far lightning is. You can always count when you see the lightning, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and then hear the thunder. And if its 5 seconds, that counts as 1 mile away. And if you count to 20 seconds, the lightning is four miles away because 4 times 5 equals 20. And if you count 10 seconds, its really close and you have to take cover.
Lexie Sixth grade Adequate word recognition Adequate comprehension in narrative Fourth grade level in informational text Lack of knowledge of informational text structures
Paraphrasing Helps students monitor comprehension Encourages connections to prior knowledge Encourages deeper processing of text Prepares students to take notes in their own words