Presentation on theme: "Module 3: Tertiary Implementation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Module 3: Tertiary Implementation PBIS Team TrainingModule 3 of 3. Each is 2 days (12 contact hours) in length, for a total of 36 contact hours.Materials Needed:WorkbooksExpectations to PostPoster/flip chart paperMasking tapeMarkersPost-it notesMusic (CD’s & CD Player or speakers for computer)Tickets/IncentivesExtra pens/pencilsChild-shaped cutouts for “ripping kids” activityBuzzers, bells, or other signaling device for PBIS Champion GamePrizes for winning team of PBIS Champions GameMaterials for “CHANGE” activityOptional itemsCandy“fidgets” for tables (slinkys, playdough, squeeze balls, etc)Module 3: Tertiary Implementation
2 Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special Programs Positive Behavior Intervention & Support InitiativeTraining & Technical assistance sponsored by NC DPI, EC Division
3 Modules developed by the University of Missouri Center for School-wide PBIS and revised by North Carolina PBIS Trainers
4 Expectations Be Responsible Be Respectful Be Kind Return promptly from breaksBe an active participantBe RespectfulTurn off cell phone ringersListen attentively to othersBe KindParticipate in activitiesListen and respond appropriately to others’ ideasParticipant Expectations and RulesTo set the stage and model what we want to teach, we have developed a list of expectations and rules for the participants.These expectations and rules will help the institute run more smoothly.Explain the Positive Feedback System you will use throughout the training.Trainers have multiple systems for reinforcement. Decide which will be the best fit for you – remember that we want to model what we are instructing. Some options:Divide the institute participants in half to form Team A and Team B (teams may select more clever names). Each team will have a container where tickets earned will be placed when the trainer recognizes that participants are following the rules and expectations. The team with the most tickets will earn reinforcers (chocolate, longer breaks, etc).Individual (or school team) lottery tickets with drawings for door prizes.School teams work to earn points that are collected over the course of several trainings (best if short span of time).
5 Attention Signal Trainer will raise his/her hand Participants will raise their hand and wait quietlyAttention Signal: used at all PBIS functions in NCThese are the directions for the signal that will be used to gain audience attention throughout the training.Show the slide.Practice by asking everyone to turn to their neighbor and say, “good morning” and tell them how happy you are to be here today.After about 15 seconds, raise your hand and say, “Attention here.” Time how long it takes all participants to get quiet.Give a ticket to the team or individual who responded to the attention signal first.
6 Welcome to PBIS Module 3 Training! Prepare a poster showing successes and challenges from Universal and Secondary Implementation.Use data from your most recent Implementation Inventory, SET, etc.
7 Training Objectives Participants will be able to: Evaluate implementation of school-wide and secondary PBISCreate a system for receiving and processing individual student referralsUse data to:Identify individual students needing interventionDevelop and evaluate interventions to address problem behaviorDetermine effectiveness of tertiary systemsInstitute ObjectivesThese objectives apply to module 3 of the PBIS Training.
8 Module 3 Accomplishments and Products At the end of these two days, teams are expected to have:Conceptualized tertiary systems for your settingDiscussed implementation of teacher-led practicesReviewed data collection & assessment for individual studentsDeveloped action steps for tertiary implementationModule Three OutcomesWe will be giving teams a lot of time to work the next two days.Teams should review data management and small group strategies.Remind the teams that we are well aware that everyone is not at the same place in the process and that is OK! That is expected.Because all the teams are working at their own pace, it is difficult for us to give them a definite list of outcomes, so these outcomes are “general.”The concluding activity tomorrow will be the development of a long-range (3-5 year) action plan
9 Activity: PBIS Review Crossword Workbook Page 3Please complete the crossword puzzle activity to review Universal and Secondary Implementation. The answers are located in the Supplemental Resources Section when it is time to review.
10 ActivityReview Universal and Secondary Implementation based on Implementation Inventory Scores.Use the data to identify Action StepsWorkbookPages 4-7
11 PBIS Tertiary Support is: A systems approach to individualized intervention and support development.A process that all staff in your school will use to support individual students.A teacher-led process that utilizes a functional approach to addressing behaviorPBIS Module 3 is NOT FBA training. This process is teacher-led in order to provide comprehensive tertiary supports in the whole school for individual students struggling with behavioral challenges.
12 School Improvement Academic Behavior Whole School Effective Classroom ResourcesPage 5Whole SchoolEffectiveSchoolOrganizationPositive SchoolClimateEffective StaffDevelopmentData BasedDecisionMakingCulturallyResponsivePracticesParent andCommunityPartnershipsInstructionalClassroomPositiveManagementInstructionUniversalDesign/DifferentiatedOngoingScreening andAssessmentClassroom Coachingand ConsultationStruggling StudentsProgressMonitoringBehavioralGroup StrategiesMental HealthAssistanceFocusedResearch-basedAcademic InstructionIndividualsFBA/BIPMentalHealth ServicesConsider-action forEligibilityECSpeciallyDesignedBehaviorInterventionsRelatedServicesTargeted Group InterventionsSmall group instructionFocused academic helpsessionsIntensive, Individual InterventionsTutoringAcademic Remediation PlansSpecially Designed InstructionFunctional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention PlanningSocial Skills instructionReinforcement of specific skillsGroup Behavioral StrategiesClassroom CoachingUniversal InterventionsSchool-wide rules andproceduresSystematic reinforcementSocial Skills InstructionCulturally responsive practicesData-based decision-makingParent & Community PartnershipsEffective instructionalpracticesRecognition of academicachievementCulturally responsive practicesAcademicBehaviorWe know that effective schools seek to provide support at multiple levels so that all students, no matter their individual needs, can be successful. So how do we accomplish this task? We have historically looked to specific practices, programs or people to meet the needs of our students. This means that we might need multiple things to meet the multiple needs of our students. Instead, we should be focusing on a process that can be used by any school, no matter what the needs of their individual students. By adopting a problem-solving approach, (CLICK) schools can effectively conduct needs assessments and build in the layers of support that meet their students’ academic and behavior needs. Here in NC, schools are using PBIS as the problem-solving framework that allows them to construct the prevention and intervention needed to address behavior and social skill deficits. You can see some examples of the interventions here. Schools will also need a plan for creating a systematic approach to academic intervention (many schools in NC are implementing Responsiveness to Instruction for this purpose).
13 CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students withHighRisk Behavior~5%Secondary PreventionSpecialized GroupSystems for Students withAtRisk Behavior~15%Primary PreventionSchoolwide andClassroomwide Systemsfor All Students,Staff, & Settings~ 80% of StudentsResourcesPage 6Let’s take a closer look at constructing a continuum of support (Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai etal., 2000; Walker et al., 1996):(CLICK) Primary prevention focuses on preventing the development of new cases of problem behaviors by focusing on all students and staff, across all settings. We expect that primary/school-wide/universal implementation will result in about 80% of students gaining the necessary behavioral and social skills necessary to be successful in school.(CLICK) Secondary prevention focuses on reducing the number of existing cases of problem behaviors by establishing efficient and rapid responses to problem behavior. Secondary prevention is only implemented after the successful implementation of S-W PBS and should result in an additional 15% of students learning necessary skills.(CLICK) Tertiary prevention focuses on reducing the intensity and/or complexity of existing cases of problem behaviors that are resistant to primary and secondary prevention efforts. Once SW and Secondary efforts are in place, tertiary prevention & intervention focuses on the remaining 2-5% of the population continuing to show skill deficits.When all three levels have been successfully implemented (a 3-5 year process) the school will have created a comprehensive system of behavioral support.
14 GOAL: 100% of students achieve at high levelsTier I: Begins with clear goals:What do we expect all students to know, understand and do as a result of our instruction?How will we know if these goals are met?How will we respond when students do not meet the goals with initial instruction?How will we respond when some students have already met the goals?CorePrimary prevention focuses on preventing the development of new cases of problem behaviors by focusing on all students and staff, across all settings. We expect that primary/school-wide/universal implementation will result in about 80% of students gaining the necessary behavioral and social skills necessary to be successful in school.Batsche, G.M. (August, 2010). We know what RtI is, now what do we do with it? Critical elements for successful implementation. Presented at the Response to Intervention (RtI) Summer 2010 Institute: Building a Context for Excellence, Macomb ISD, Clinton Township, MI. Retrieved from(Batsche, 2010)141414
15 Supplemental Tier II < 20% of students Core + Supplemental To Achieve BenchmarksWhere are the students performing now?Where do we want them to be?How long do we have to get them there?How much do they have to grow per year/month to get there?What resources will move them at that rate?How will we monitor the growth of students receiving supplemental instruction?SupplementalSecondary prevention focuses on reducing the number of existing cases of problem behaviors by establishing efficient and rapid responses to problem behavior. Secondary prevention is only implemented after the successful implementation of S-W PBIS and should result in an additional 15% of students learning necessary skills.Batsche, G.M. (August, 2010). We know what RtI is, now what do we do with it? Critical elements for successful implementation. Presented at the Response to Intervention (RtI) Summer 2010 Institute: Building a Context for Excellence, Macomb ISD, Clinton Township, MI. Retrieved from(Batsche, 2010)151515
16 Intensive Individual Instruction Tier III< 5% of StudentsCore+SupplementalIntensive Individual Instruction…to achieve benchmarksWhere is the student performing now?Where do we want him/her to be?How long do we have to get him/her there?What supports has he/she received?What resources will move him/her at that rate?How will we monitor and evaluate the student’s growth?ve, IndividualizedTertiary prevention focuses on reducing the intensity and/or complexity of existing cases of problem behaviors that are resistant to primary and secondary prevention efforts. Once SW and Secondary efforts are in place, tertiary prevention & intervention focuses on the remaining 2-5% of the population continuing to show skill deficits.Batsche, G.M. (August, 2010). We know what RtI is, now what do we do with it? Critical elements for successful implementation. Presented at the Response to Intervention (RtI) Summer 2010 Institute: Building a Context for Excellence, Macomb ISD, Clinton Township, MI. Retrieved from(Batsche, 2010)161616
17 Label behavior…not people UniversalTargetedIntensiveMathScienceSpanishReadingNOTICE GREEN IS FOR “ALL”When we talk about a continuum of supports, we should not be referring to students as “red zone” or “yellow zone” students. We should be mindful that every student has unique strengths and challenges. When we use the pyramid to refer to behaviors that require intervention, we can see that students might have many behaviors that do not require intervention, some behaviors that might require some interventions, and a few behaviors that require intensive support and intervention. We must remember to label behavior, not people.Soc skillsSoc StudiesBasketballLabel behavior…not peopleDec 7, 2007
18 Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES SYSTEMS Supporting Staff BehaviorDATASupportingDecisionMakingPositive Behavior Intervention & Support GraphicThis graphic describes the interplay between the four key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other:Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educatorsPractices: interventions and strategies that are evidence-basedData: information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventionsSystems: support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices ofPBIS systems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state(From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005) Teams can get a copy of the blueprint at TRAINER COULD BRING A HARD COPY OF THIS TO SHOW.Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behavior. Emphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness and gained desired outcomes, we must address each element.Research validated practices, interventions, strategies, curriculum, etc. to achieve goals and outcomes. Data are used to guide which Practices should be selected and/or adapted to achieve goals/outcomes. The selection and use of evidenced-based practicesAre given priority.Systems change – considerations that support the effective and efficient selection and implementation of practices by school personnel (e.g., teachers, school psychologist, administrators.) These…. (new Implementation Blueprint, p. 11).PRACTICESSupportingStudent BehaviorResourcesPage 6PositiveBehavior Intervention &Support
19 Problem Solving Meeting Foundations IdentifyProblemsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelDevelopHypothesisEvaluate andReviseAction PlanCollectand UseDataThe PBIS workshop has been designed to follow the Problem-Solving Model approach.The Problem-Solving Model framework will ensure the school’s ability to weave initiatives together, such as Response to Instruction. PBIS utilizes the problem solving approach as does Response to Instruction.It is imperative that we continue to look at new initiatives within our schools with a lens of how we remain effective by adding something new. With the PSM approach we are able to stay effective and efficient.ResourcesPages 7-9Discuss andSelectSolutionsDevelop andImplementAction PlanProblem Solving Meeting Foundations(Newton, et. al., 2009)
20 Tertiary Implementation: Data, Systems, and Practices to Support Individuals
21 Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Social Competence & OUTCOMESSocial Competence &Academic AchievementSYSTEMSSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASupportingDecisionMakingPositive Behavior Intervention and Support GraphicThis graphic describes the interplay between the 4 key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other.Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educatorsPractices: interventions and strategies that are evidence-basedData: information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventionsSystems: support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBISSystems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state-From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005)Teams can get a copy of the blueprint atSupporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behaviorEmphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.PRACTICESSupportingStudent BehaviorPositiveBehaviorIntervention& Support
22 Data Collection Strategies & Tools Problem identification,data collection, and evaluation
23 Clear Definition of Problem Behavior The “Stranger Test”Is the description of the behavior crystal clear?Would a stranger’s description match yours?If a stranger read your description, would they be able to identify the problem behavior?When was the last time you had a “stranger test?” The last time you had substitute.
24 Measurable Descriptors Not MeasurableoppositionalbotheringlazyAs we begin to think about data collection, we need to make sure that we are describing behavior in a way that is measureable and observable-if we can count it – we can collect data on it….*****fighting and swearing can only be said to be measureable if they have been operationally defined at the school leveltalking outrudeinattentiveswearingfightingout of areadefiantcompleting work
25 Data Considerations: Objective Descriptors SubjectiveObjectiveTalking during seatworkDisobedientSeldomRepeatedlyPassing notesBehaviors should also be described objectively, primarily because each person may have different definitions of terms like sometimes and bizarre.Just a with school-wide expectations, we want to make sure that we are consistently talking about the same behaviorsOnce or twice a weekHurrying through workLeaning back in chairFive times each dayBothering a neighborSometimesContinuouslyEvery ten minutesBizarreTapping pencil on deskTwice each period
26 Data Considerations: Data to Collect How often does the behavior occur?FrequencyHow extreme is it?IntensitySo what data will you need about the behavior?Frequency: How often?# of times/class period – day – week – month – yearIntensity: How extreme?whispering – talking – yelling - screamingthrowing cotton balls – paper – books – chairsDuration: How long?seconds – minutes – hours – dayshalf a class period**continuously? Really? (may feel like it when you’re living with the behavior – but is there anything that we really do CONTINUOUSLY)Context: Where/When/What else is going on?This is the “Everything else that is going on when a problem behavior is occuring…can include not just location and time of day, but also other factors that we don’t always identify. What other students or adults are present? What activity was the student engaged in? ANYTHING happening or present in the environment either right before or during the behavior (when in doubt, write it down)DurationContextHow long does it last?Under what circumstances does it occur?
27 Data Collection Strategies What is already collected?Anecdotal notes by teacherOffice referralsDisciplinary actionsAs we begin to plan for data collection for the individual student, we want to remember our focus on working smarter. So, we would start by looking at the data we already have: anecdotal notes by the student’s teacher(s) & prior office referrals and disciplinary actions. Can we establish the function of the behavior based on this data? If not, we could plan for additional data collection. As we do that, we want to consider which data collection strategies will be easiest to implement and give us the level of information that we need. Probably the least difficult collection method is the use of Checklists, followed by DBR, Observation and Interviews. Just like the levels of FBA, these strategies are arranged in order of least to greatest investment of time and resources. Next, we will discuss each in more detail.
28 Data Collection Strategies What else can be collected?Products from ConsequencesBehavior ContractsChecklistsDaily Behavior Report (DBR)Direct ObservationInterviewsAs we begin to plan for data collection for the individual student, we want to remember our focus on working smarter. So, we would start by looking at the data we already have: anecdotal notes by the student’s teacher(s) & prior office referrals and disciplinary actions. Can we establish the function of the behavior based on this data? If not, we could plan for additional data collection. As we do that, we want to consider which data collection strategies will be easiest to implement and give us the level of information that we need. Probably the least difficult collection method is the use of Checklists, followed by DBR, Observation and Interviews. Just like the levels of FBA, these strategies are arranged in order of least to greatest investment of time and resources. Next, we will discuss each in more detail.
29 Becoming A Problem Solver “Think sheets”What will I do from now on?How should I have solved theproblem? List 2 better ways.The rule I broke wasFixing Broken RulesBecoming A Problem SolverResourcesPages 10-11What should happenbecause I broke the rule?
30 DBRs Daily Behavior Report = DBR ResourcesPage 12DBRsDaily Behavior Report = DBRAlso referred to as Direct Behavior RatingThe DBR involves a brief rating of target behavior over a specified period of time on a scale 1-10.For more information and examples:Other Names for DBRHome-School NoteBehavior Report CardDaily Progress ReportGood Behavior NoteCheck-In Check-Out CardPerformance-based behavioral recordingLevel II
31 Characteristics of DBR The DBR involves a brief rating of target behavior over a specified period of timebehavior(s) is specifiedrating of the behavior(s) typically occurs at least dailyobtained information is shared across individuals (e.g., parents, teachers, students)the card is used to monitorthe effects of an interventionas a component of an intervention(Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002)Effective behavioral assessment and intervention procedures in applied settings require the use of empirically-supported yet feasible techniquesTo date, feasible assessment of behavior skills has been focused on ODR data – which may not be sensitive to capture all behaviors of interestTo date, support for feasible, formative assessment of academic skills is available (e.g., CBM) – but attention has not been directed toward social behaviorsStrengthsHighly FlexibleHighly Feasible, Acceptable, and FamiliarMinimal Cost Given Potential Amount and Uses for DataReduced Risk of Reactivity (atypical behavior)Can be used in assessment, intervention, and communicationWeaknessesRater Influence (history)Limited Response FormatLimited Knowledge about Psychometric Adequacy31
32 Potential Uses for the DBR Increase communicationAs a component of an intervention package, particularly in self-managementProvide “quick” assessment of behaviors, especially those not easily captured by other meansMonitor student behavior over timeFlexible60% of teachers surveyed already use DBRs to change student behavior32% to monitor or observe student behavior81% to identify positive behaviors, 77% to identify negative behaviors86% use with individual students, 19% with whole class, 9% with small groups32% use DBRs “routinely” as part of classroom management planIncrease communication (teacher-student, home-school)As a component of an intervention package, particularly in self-managementProvide “quick” assessment of behaviors, especially those not easily captured by other meansMonitor student behavior over timeFlexibleK-12,+ or –1 student or larger grouprange of behaviors(Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Sassu, 2006)32
33 A systematic DBR possesses the following 4 characteristics: 1. The behavior of interest must be operationally defined2. The observations should be conducted under standardized procedures3. The DBR should be used in a specific time, place, and at a predetermined frequency4. The data must be scored and summarized in a consistent mannerEnsure that use is “systematic”Identify and operationally define a behavior of interestUse a system of observation in a specific time and placeScore and summarize the data in a consistent manner(Similar to the criteria that define systematic direct observation (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 2004)Provide checks on integrity and acceptabilityUnderstand correspondence with other data sources33
34 How are DBR data summarized? Data can be quantified, compared, combined, and summarized for summative and formative purposes.For example, DBR data of Susie’s disruptive behavior over the week can be summarized into a statement of average daily or weekly rating (6 out of 9 points) or most likely period of high or low disruption if multiple ratings per day are taken (just before lunch).Since DBR involve rating on some scale, data are summarized relevant to the scale.For example, a simple yes/no checklist can be easily depicted through a bar chart whereas rating information might be plotted on a line graph, with the intervals on the y-axis indicating the DBR scale.34
36 DBR Considerations Measures perception of behavior “3 to 7” not “he is a 7”No absolutes in Social BehaviorRater EffectsIt is important to consider the fact that the DBR measures the teachers’ perception of the behavior, not the actual behavior (ex. Engaged in the behavior 5 times). Further, we are measuring changes in the teachers perception of the behavior as a movement between scores, and not using a score as a description of a student. Remember, in social behavior there are no absolutes, the goals must be defined within a given social context. In addition, who the rater is matters because we are measuring perceptions. Teachers perceptions tend to move consistently once established on the scale of 1-10, however, it is not appropriate to compare one teachers score of 5 to another teachers score of 1. Thus, keep consistency in the rater for the duration of the intervention.
37 Individual Student Data Tracking This is an Individual Student Data Tracking Form. You can use this to collect and summarize individual student data. You will need to enter the goal amount and whether the goal is a percent or the total number of occurrences. The baseline data is entered on the top right side of the form by entering the date and the value for that day. Next, you will be able to enter data for the first phase of intervention on the right side of the document. Then, you can enter notes or descriptions for Phase 1. You can also enter a second phase of data and notes, if you revise the plan or change intervention. The form has embedded formulas to automatically create a graph to summarize your data. A blank copy is included in the supplemental resources.ResourcesPage 13
38 Direct Assessment – Frequency Counts ResourcesPage 14Behavior CountingName ____Shamel ____ Week of __Nov 5, 200X______Behavior to be counted ____Negative Comments to Peers: (Get out of my face. )Mon.Tue.Wed.Thurs.Fri.TotalArrivalMathScienceArtReadingIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIII IIIII II40I3Direct assessment is another tool that can be utilized to measure behaviors. This tool is a direct assessment of the frequency of the a behavior across settings and across time. So, looking at this data what can we tell about when Shamel has the most difficulty with negative comments to peers?IIIIIIIIII11IIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIII24IIIIII638
39 Direct Assessment – Duration Recording Record the elapsed time, usually in minutes, from onset to conclusion of target behavior. Be sure to indicate the date, and the activity in which the student was engaged when the target behavior began to escalate.Student Name: ___Shamel __ Week of / Day : __Nov 15, 200X____Target Behavior: Tantrum (screams, lays on floor, throws items)ResourcesPage 14Behavior IncidentBriefly describe, making sure to note date, time, and any circumstances you think noteworthy.TransitionLarge GroupSmall GroupIndividual WorkRead AloudRead SilentlyIn CrowdsLibrarySpecialsSpecific Subject#1#2#39:45-10:15, Mon, Nov 15Group was doing read aloudAnother form of direct assessment is a duration recording. This allows you to document the length of incidents for behaviors that might not occur frequently but last for a considerable amount of time, such as tantrums.9:35-10:15, Tue, Nov 16Went to an assembly in the gym#3 9:28-10:05, Fri, Nov 19Oral vocabulary test
40 Context Checklist Social/Emotional Response to demand/request ResourcesPage 15Social/EmotionalResponse to demand/requestTransition between tasks/ settingInterruption in routineChange in home/family dynamicsLack of social attentionNegative social interaction w/peersNegative social interaction w/adultsSocial skills deficitsConsequences imposed for negative behaviorOther (specify): ____________________________Academic/InstructionalSpecific subject: ____________________________Grade level : on/above/belowActivities: too easy/ too difficultWork completion: finishes quickly/ average / rarely finishes
41 Classroom Assessment Designing the Physical Space ResourcesPages 16-19Classroom AssessmentClassroom Management Checklist*adapted from Geoff Colvin's Classroom StrategiesName of Teacher ___________________ Date ______________Designing the Physical SpaceIn Place = 2 Partially = 1Not = 01. A specific classroom area is identified for independent work.2. A specific classroom area is identified for group work.3. A specific classroom area is identified for free choice activity.4. A specific classroom area is identified for time out.5. A specific classroom area is identified which is easily accessible for teacher storage and student supplies.Level I
42 Data Considerations What is the target behavior and goal? Focus on a specific behavior that has been operationally definedGoal to increase or decrease behaviorWho is the focus of the rating?Individual, small-group or class-wideWhat is the period for rating?Specific school period, daily, or otherWhat is the setting of observation?Classroom or other locationWe have made some recommendations about tools to use for different levels/intensities of intervention. However, the team must ultimately make the call about which data collection tool(s) will provide the data needed to assist in student behavior change. These questions about data will help your team identify the best approaches to collecting data at the tertiary level.42
43 Data Considerations How often will data be collected? Multiple times a day, daily, weeklyWhich tools are the best to assess the behavior?Checklist, rating scale, DBR, observation, interviewWho will conduct the rating? What resources can be used to collect data?Classroom teacher, aide, or other educational professionalWill ratings be tied to consequences?Consequences must be consistently delivered by person responsible“A problem incorrectly defined leads us to solutions that may not effect change.” ****NEED SOURCE****We have made some recommendations about tools to use for different levels/intensities of intervention. However, the team must ultimately make the call about which data collection tool(s) will provide the data needed to assist in student behavior change.43
44 Activity: Tertiary Data With your team complete the Tertiary Data activityTeam TimeAsk participants if they have questions about functional behavior assessment and developing hypotheses.Give instructions for the team time session. Instruct teams to take some time to focus on the topic of functional behavior assessment and developing a hypothesis statement.WorkbookPage 8
45 Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Social Competence & OUTCOMESSocial Competence &Academic AchievementSYSTEMSSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASupportingDecisionMakingPositive Behavior Intervention and Support GraphicThis graphic describes the interplay between the 4 key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other.Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educatorsPractices: interventions and strategies that are evidence-basedData: information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventionsSystems: support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBISSystems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state-From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005)Teams can get a copy of the blueprint atSupporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behaviorEmphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.PRACTICESSupportingStudent BehaviorPositiveBehaviorIntervention andSupport
46 Activity CHANGE Activity: CHANGE Each group is given a small cup of clear water and told that they have 3 minutes to change it to green. They can use any personal items they brought (Contents of purse, pockets, etc) to help.After initial 3 minutes, offer groups a chance to take a random item from grab bag (which should some items that will turn water green (green paint, green food dye, green kool-aid powder, yellow and blue dye) and some that will not (only yellow paint, red cool-aid, etc). Give groups 2 minutes to turn their water green.For final round, tell groups they can share items or can ask for something from another group. Give them 1 minute to complete assignment. Everyone should have green water at the end.Discuss our efforts to turn yellow and red students “green.” We have limited success when we go it alone, slightly better when we apply a random intervention, the best outcome when we work together using proven (research-based, functionally selected interventions) methods in concert with our team. Not the water that is doing something to turn green, but the teachers who are doing something to change the outcome.ALTERNATIVE ACTIVITY: Correy’s activity chewing gum, microwave popcorn, and coal.
48 Tertiary Systems Considerations Commit to:Establishing a team to assess and intervene with students who have serious behavior problemsAllotting adequate time and resources for the teamTraining & planningDesign & implementation of individual supportsTertiary Systems require time and planning. Very often they also require a willingness on the whole staff to try things outside of their comfort zones.Administrative support is critical in the development of a team for intervention, as the team will need to be freed from other duties for an adequate amount of time for training and then to provide support to students and staff
49 Why do we need Tertiary Systems? To make a lasting, positive, change in behaviorTo provide a systematic way to support staff and studentsTo establish practices for children with behavior concernsWe know that all students needs will not be met by Universal and Secondary Support Systems. In order to ensure that we are able to meet the needs of all students, we must establish Tertiary Systems to support more intensive needs of individual students. It’s very uncommon for schools to not have any Tertiary Support Systems, however, many schools do not apply the problem solving process to ensure the practices and systems are operating effectively and have positive outcomes for students.
50 Team Structure Consideration Who?What?When?Where?Why?When thinking about how your team will support Tertiary Implementation, consider who, what, when, where, and why. Imagine that your PBIS team attended Module 1 training and had one ball representing Universal implementation to keep in the air. Next, your team attended Module 2 training, and now you have balls representing Universal and Secondary to keep in the air. Finally, you are now adding a ball representing Tertiary Supports. In order to juggle all of these responsibilities, your team has to consider the most efficient ways to operate.Considering the team members available to take responsibility for coordinating implementation at the tertiary level, identifying what supports your school will offer, when the team will meet and when services will be delivered, where the team will meet and where services will be delivered, and always articulating why the tertiary team is meeting/responding, as well as, why a student needs a particular support will be critical.
51 Most Common Team Structures Problem-Solving Only TeamRtI & PBIS TeamsAccording to a survey completed by 34 administrators of schools implementing RtI (Fall, 2009), the most common team structure is to have only one problem-solving team. When this is the structure, both the pre-referral team and the PBIS team are absorbed into the RtI team (left graphic).The second most common structure is to have two teams, the RtI team, addressing academic issues and the overall RtI process, and the PBIS team addressing behavioral support and the PBIS implementation process. When this is the structure the pre-referral team is absorbed into the RtI team (right).Pre-referral and PBIS absorbed in RtIPre-referral absorbed in RtI
52 Problem Solving Only Team Will you have representatives for each level of support or for grade levels?Tier IIIAcademicTier IIIBehaviorTier IIBehaviorTier IIAcademicTier IBehaviorTier IAcademicProblem Solving Only TeamAnother way to approach with one team approach. Again must find way to support whole school and individual teachers. This graphic shows that some teams have established representatives for each level of implementation for both academics and behavior.
53 How will you structure both problem solving teams? 2nd gradeBehavior3rd gradeBehavior4th gradeBehavior2nd gradeAcademic1st gradeBehavior3rd gradeAcademic1st gradeAcademic5th gradeBehaviorKinder-gartenbehavior4th gradeAcademicKinder-gartenAcademic5th gradeAcademicIf you have two problem solving models being implemented at your school, you might consider maintaining both team structures. If this is the case, how will you establish communication and build a system of support for teachers. One possible structure would be to keep both the RtI and PBIS team, which will oversee the problem solving process for whole school data and address core instructional issues. The RtI team members will also serve as grade level representatives for academic concerns and PBIS team members will serve as grade level representatives for behavioral concerns.RtI TeamRtI processPBIS TeamSchool-widePBIS processHow will you structure both problem solving teams?
54 Team Responsibilities: Tertiary System Considerations Identify resources and structures develop the tertiary system of supportsAssess studentsDevelop and implement support plansPersonnelFamily InvolvementExternal agency involvement(Child and Family Teams/System of Care)Your team is responsible for creating a tertiary system of supports and facilitating the identification of students needing those supports. You will need to consider the resources (time and materials) needed to establish the system. When establishing systems of support, consider who will need to be included, such as staff members with expertise, stakeholders, or agencies your team can collaborate with to strengthen the supports provided for students with intensive behavioral needs.
55 Team Responsibilities: Implement the Tertiary System Access training and on-going staff development to establish and maintain knowledge of PBIS teamProviding staff development and support to teachers regarding the processSupport teachers with assessment and implementationYour team is also responsible for ensuring that staff receive training on the tertiary support system. First, you will want to ensure that you have accessed the training necessary to build the skills for your PBIS team. You will also need to consider how to continue to increase expertise for all of the staff at your school. In addition, we know that teachers will implement the strategies and plans with greater integrity if your support is offered to them as they attempt to implement these supports systems and practices.
56 Team Responsibilities: Monitor the Tertiary System Review behavioral data and interventions in order to evaluate the effectivenessReviewing Implementation Inventory Tertiary Systems, Data, and Practices to address areas of needYour team will use data to guide implementation. The Implementation Inventory is a tool that we will use throughout this training to help you identify areas that you will need to address with your action plan. In addition, you will need to review student data to determine the effectiveness of the interventions and supports that you offer in your continuum. Data is essential for establishing and maintaining your continuum of supports.
57 Activity: Tertiary Team Discuss connections to existing teams (ex. RtI, pre-referral, PBIS, SOC, etc.)Discuss team structure, organization, and communication.Complete the Tertiary Team Functions Section of your workbook.WorkbookPage 9
58 Create the System: Working Smarter What does working smarter look like at the individual level? How do we invest our resources wisely?To go back to an old analogy: Historically we have approached inappropriate behavior in schools by waiting until the students started the fire and then running around with buckets of water and trying to put them out. We said that one of the ways PBIS was different was that we are interested in prevention, or in taking the matches out of the hands of the students before they ever have a chance to light a match (also knowing that we can carry more books of matches than buckets of water). To extend that analogy, let’s say we are babysitting our nephew. We know he sometimes carries matches, but have always had ample opportunity to take them before a major problem develops. Today, however, he manages to slip some matches past us and strike one -- what is our response? Do we call the fire department for one burning match? No, we blow the match out and take away the matches (and start asking our nephew to hand over matches regularly). Say we don’t see the burning match and he lights a piece of paper on fire? What if it has a chance to grow to a small fire in the trashcan (Probably you just put the fire out with a fire extinguisher)? What if it catches the curtains on fire? – now do you call the fire department?? In other words, its only when you have exhausted your own resources and ability to put the fire out that you call in the specialists. What would happen if every time someone struck a match you called the fire department? Also, you didn’t hook up the hose to put out the match, right? Or try to blow out the flaming curtains?We want to use the same approach to students whose exhibit problem behavior. We want to use the lowest intensity intervention that will work and we want to exhaust our own ideas before we call in the specialists.Develop a continuum of support within the tertiary level to address all the shades of red
59 Three Important Themes Create systems (not just interventions) to support all studentsIntervene earlier rather than laterEvidence, not opinionInterventions are critical to the tertiary level of support, but without a system to ensure they are delivered efficiently and with fidelity, our tertiary system resources might be over-extended. It is critical that the interventions and practices we offer are research-based and have evidence of their effectiveness. As with most patterns of behavior, intervention early increases the likelihood of successful response.
60 Data Decision Rules To address: Teachers initiating the behavioral support processStudent data initiating the processProgress and goal completion rulesTertiary intervention effectiveness guidelinesYour team will also need to establish, document, and communicate the data decision rules about students eligible for tertiary supports. What guidelines will you provide to outline when a teacher or student would like to initiate a referral for support? How will you communicate the expectations for progress and goal completion? How will you collect data to help you determine if the interventions you are utilizing are effective?
61 Examples Less than 15 Star Tickets earned per week for 2 weeks More than 5 absences in a 30 day period3 or more counseling referrals in a 30 day period6 or more office discipline referralsProgress to 80% completion of homework assignments70% of students receiving this tertiary intervention meet their goals within 8 weeksThese are some examples of different rules that might apply at the tertiary level.
62 Activity: Tertiary Data Decision Rules Discuss with your team possible data decision rules for your schoolStudent referralsProgress and goal completionIntervention effectivenessWorkbookPage 10
63 Systems for Individual Students Quick, supportive response to teacherUnderstand how behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment (competing pathways)If you have multiple students displaying similar behaviors = system issue not individual student issueSystems for Individual StudentsRemind participants we are still looking at a system’s approach to improving behavior of children with or without disabilities. This will still require a team of some kind, school may choose to utilize existing team, PBIS Team, RtI, and/or IC teamThe PBIS team needs to respond to teachers’ requests for support within 48 hours.Students with chronic challenging behaviors often require more than one adult’s input.If there are multiple students exhibiting similar behaviors, then the school has an issue at the system’s level. There is a mismatch between the system and the students. Examination of data should reveal this.Remind participants they cannot take student’s behavior personally. Suggest videotaping to look for patterns of student behavior.Through examining competing pathways, it can be determined why students engage in a particular behavior. By examining competing pathways, we can get to the “purpose” or “function” the behavior serves.
64 Referral Process How will teachers know who to refer? Data decision ruleProfessional judgmentAfter what process in classroomHow do they refer?FormTo WhomTeachers will need to know the expectation for when to initiate a referral, as well as the process for making a referral.Often teachers have accessed support services by having conversations in the hall. This type of contact might not provide the data and documentation to effectively initiate a referral.Remember that good teachers often will not ask for help; therefore, support must be established for them.
65 Referral Process What happens next? Data collection Case manager Parent/family participationTeam meetingOnce a referral is madeHow will families be included in a way that helps them feel invited to collaborate, not forced or coerced
66 Referral Process Plan Plan written? Good fit for context? Executed by whom? How do you know?Evaluated?Next StepsOnce a referral is made the PBIS team needs to respond to teachers’ requests for support within 48 hours. While a formal meeting might not be able to take place within 48 hours, someone from the team should attempt to contact the teacher and offer some type of immediate assistance, until the plan can be developed and implemented. This will make a significant difference in how teachers will feel about requesting assistance, if they see that the process is timely and supportive of their needs.A plan for addressing the students’ needs will need to be contextually and developmentally appropriate.Always consider how will families be included in a way that helps them feel invited to collaborate, not forced or coerced
67 Individual Student Referral Process Supplemental ResourcesPage 20Individual Student Referral ProcessTraining & Support for TeachersTeacher Data Collection, Intervention, & EvaluationTeacher Continues Successful InterventionsRequest for AssistanceGrade Level or Team collects data, recommends intervention, evaluates outcomesProcess for AssistanceOur goal is to design a system that allows this process to take place.Following this model the teacher is never left on his/her own.The team meets within 48 hours of initial request for assistance.The team provides strategies for the teacher to implement immediately.The team checks in with the teacher the next day to see how things are going.If strategies are not successful, the team assesses to get the needed information to develop an individual plan for the student.The critical component is that all pieces are connected. This sends the message that this is “our student, our responsibility” and the teacher doesn’t feel he/she is alone. It is a team process with everyone supporting each other.
68 Activity: Tertiary Referral Process Discuss the referral process for tertiary supports section in your workbookWorkbookPage 11
69 An evaluation of Systems for the Tertiary Level: Checklist for Individual Student Systems (CISS)ResourcesPages 21-24Part I: Foundations2-Fully in place partially in place 0-not yet startedScore within the past 18 months on the SET (80%/80%), BOQ (70%), or TIC (80%) indicates that SWPBS is being implemented with fidelityA person within the school building is identified to coordinate function-based support planning and implementation.At least three people within the school are trained to conduct basic functional behavior assessment interviews and do simple, confirmatory direct observations based on the results of the functional behavior assessment interview.At least one person within the school, or regularly available to the school, is trained to conduct direct observation methods of functional behavior assessment and lead development of a behavior support plan.This instrument is an optional tool that can be used by your team to specifically evaluate the Systems at the Tertiary Level of Supports for your school. This can provide additional data about components of tertiary systems that your team might want to consider for action planning, especially following continuously high scores or continuously low scores in the systems section of the Implementation Inventory . Please review the copy in your Supplemental Resources.
70 Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Social Competence & OUTCOMESSocial Competence &Academic AchievementDATASupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorSYSTEMSPositive Behavior Support GraphicThis graphic describes the interplay between the 4 key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other.Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educatorsPractices: interventions and strategies that are evidence-basedData: information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventionsSystems: support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBISSystems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state-From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005)Teams can get a copy of the blueprint atSupporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behaviorEmphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.PRACTICESSupportingStudent BehaviorPositiveBehaviorIntervention& Support
71 Functional Assessment & Intervention ResourcesPage 25INFORMALEASIERSIMPLERESPONSIVENOT RESPONSIVECOMPLICATEDHARDERFORMALLevel of Functional SupportToolsPerson(s) involvedTeacher LedBehavior ContractTeacherStudentParentAdditional resourceProblem Solving WorksheetCompeting Behavior PathwayERASETeam DirectedTeamBrief Intervention PlanningFull FBA & BIP with Child/Family TeamCommunity PartnersFunctional Analysis & Behavior Intervention Plan*Additional resource could be counselor, additional teacher, social worker, psychologist; basically an additional school staff member with knowledge/expertise about the student and/or the problem behavior**”Community Partners = agency support, behavior support consultant, etcBased on:Crone, D.A., & Horner, R.H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice? (2009). National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), Retrieved from
72 Team-Directed FBA/BIP Teacher-Led SupportDeveloped by teacher & parentAssess instructional practicesIndividualize existing classroom plansAssess classroom environment & social skills instructionCould result in matching student to existing interventionTeam-Directed FBA/BIPTeacher has already attemptedMore complex problem behaviorRequires the use of more assessment, observation, data collectionChild & Family TeamSafety concernTeam-directed FBAs are completed when there is a question as to function, when the behavior occurs across settings, when the behavior is more complexTeam directed may require the use of more assessment, observation, data collectionSchool teams strongly encouraged to include agencies and other community partners involved with the family (Systems of Care, Child & Family Team) with Team Directed process
73 Both Identify: Problem behavior Setting events that increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the targeted behaviorAntecedents that reliably predict the target behaviorConsequences that maintain the behaviorPlans to teach replacement behaviorBoth apply behavioral science principlesDefine target behavior.Identify setting events that increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the targeted behavior.Identify the events/antecedent triggers that reliably predict the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the target behavior.Identify the consequences that maintain the behavior.Identify and plan to teach replacement behaviorHorner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/31/08 gsbriefba.ppt73
74 Behavior What is the challenging behavior? What can you observe? What does it look or sound like?Choose onePrioritizeSometimes it can be difficult to focus on one behavior, as many students present a variety of challenging behaviors. It is important to prioritize which behavior is having the most significant impact on the student and select that particular behavior to begin the intervention process.
75 BehaviorThis is an example of a student’s behavior, in which the student demonstrates several challenging behaviors. After some data collection, it is evident that the behavior the student demonstrates most often is leaving his assigned area. Considering the frequency is just one way to prioritize student behaviors. Remember to always address behaviors that are safety issues immediately with a crisis plan if necessary.
76 Setting EventsWhat environmental, personal, situational or daily events impact the behavior?Eating/Sleeping routinesMedical/Physical problemsFamilial and staff interactionsDo not immediately precede problem behaviorSetting events are environmental, personal, situations, or daily events that impact student behavior. They may or may not immediately precede the behavior, but are none-the-less a factor associated with the particular behaviors the student demonstrates.
77 Setting EventsThis is an example of Setting Event data. We can see from this particular graph that having missed the bus or not having breakfast, which may be related issues, are common setting events associated with the behavioral challenges we observe.
78 Antecedent What happens immediately before the behavior? Predicts problem behaviorWhen, Where, With whom, ActivityTime of dayPhysical SettingPeople presentTypes of interactions (demands, directives, etc.)Predictors of the occurrence or non-occurrence of the problem behaviorTypically occur immediately before the problem behaviorWhen, Where, With whom, ActivityTime of dayPhysical SettingPeople presentTypes of interactions (demands, directives, etc.)
79 AntecedentThis is not an exhaustive list of antecedents, rather it is an example of data that can be collected.Often teachers will say “There is no pattern. The behavior happens all the time. It’s unpredictable.” It is important to know that it is extremely rare to see a behavior happen exclusively during one time period or one class or one activity. Rather, we tend to see the teacher is correct, the behavior does happen “all of the time,” however, when we collect the data we can see patterns emerge. Very often we can see one antecedent is more frequently associated with the behavior. While it is not 100% of the time, even accounting for only 20-30% of the time can help us know where to intervene. In this example, which antecedent is most often associated with the problem behavior we observe?
80 Consequence What happens immediately after the behavior? Gives student a reason to repeat the problem behaviorNot related to punishmentWhen we are talking about functional based approaches to behavior, consequences do not refer to punishments that follow behaviors. Rather, they are any particular outcome that happens immediately after the behavior. They are responses that allow the student to access something or avoid something. Even things we might not immediately recognize as a consequence can be enough to encourage a student to continue demonstrating a particular behavior.
81 This is an example of a graph containing the consequences a student experienced after demonstrating problem behavior. While calling a students name might not immediately seem like attention, it might be sufficient attention for that particular student. In this example, when the student demonstrated the behavior the teacher responded by calling the students name, which suggests the student is motivated by attention. Further, we can see the time-out response is relatively low, which suggests that the student is not trying to escape the classroom activities. So when ever you are collecting data about consequences be mindful of what each of the responses is either giving access to or helping a student escape.
82 Function … People behave for a reason - we call this “function” Does he/she get something?Tangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc.Does he/she avoid or escape something?People, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc.Behavior communicates needNeed is determined by observing what happens prior to and immediately after behaviorKids engage in behavior for two reasons: to get what they want or avoid what they don’t want.Their behavior is based on their learning history. The behavior has worked in the past.Remember, there is no universal reinforcing or aversive stimulus. What we may find aversive, many find reinforcing, thereby inadvertently reinforcing inappropriate behavior.This is why we MUST observe what happens prior to and immediately after the inappropriate behavior.
83 Only Two Basic Functions For example-Many students use off topic comments/inappropriate language to obtainattention from peers through their reactions and to escape the task at hand.In this example, social reinforcement is obtained from the peers and theadult.Remember reinforcement is positive and negative.NOTE:When control is offered as a possible function- think about what is underlying that perception.Control can be a way:To hide skill deficits; therefore escaping/avoiding a taskTo hide fears around social acceptance; therefore escaping/avoiding a situationFor an individual to assert themselves; therefore gaining/obtaining the attention of peers/adultsSugai, H. (2011). Addressing individual challenging behavior through function-based support (FBA Overview). Retrieved fromSugai, 2011
84 Hypothesis Statements Information about the problem behavior is used to write a hypothesis statement that helps us predict when the problem behavior is likely to occur and the function of that behaviorNow that we have worked through the components of determining the function of the behavior, we need to write a statement that helps us make sense of the data. A hypothesis statement will help us to predict when the problem behavior is likely to occur and will guide our intervention and support efforts.
85 Hypothesis Statements When Estes is ___________ and __________ (happens), hewhere/setting context/antecedenttypically responds by _________ to gain/avoid ____________ .behavior functionA hypothesis statement has four parts: where, context/antecedent, behavior, and the proposed function.Hypothesis:When Estes is in language artsand the teacher is providing directinstructionhe typically responds by making verbal noises (ex. Burping)to access peer and teacher attention.
86 Activity Write a hypothesis statement about Bruno’s behavior Bruno People engage in behaviors for a reason. When we understand functions we can try to guess what a person is trying to get or avoid. What is Bruno trying to get or avoid? (Peer attention)ActivityWrite a hypothesis statement about Bruno’s behavior
87 Identifying the function helps: Choose an appropriate interventionWill this intervention meet the functional need?Choose an appropriate replacement behaviorAlternative behavior taught to the studentWhat you want the student to do insteadMust meet functional needIt is not possible to determine function of a student’s challenging behavior simply by describing the behaviorChoose an appropriate interventionConnect the FUNCTION with the interventionAsk: Will this intervention meet the functional need?Ex. If the function of the behavior is to access adult attention:Intervention should prevent access to adult attention for inappropriate behaviorsIntervention should provide access to adult attention for appropriate behaviorsChoose an appropriate replacement behaviorNew or alternative behavior taught to the student as a replacement option for the problem behavior.Key points:It is probably more efficient for the student to engage in the problem behaviorReplacement behavior must allow student access to same functional need but more efficiently
88 Based on this data about consequences, if you were selecting an reinforcement component for a behavior plan, which reinforcement would be most effective? Lunch with a teacher
90 Teacher – Led SupportAny individualized behavior support should always begin with a hypothesis based on data about the studentWhen looking at individual student behavioral challenges we must always start with what the data is telling us about the student behavior right now. We do not have to be right, we must have a guess. After we have implemented the plan we will be able to determine if our hypothesis or guess is correct.All teachers in your school need to at a minimum, understand the basics of behavior and how to think about hypothesizing the function of a students behavior.
91 Level of Functional Support Teacher – Led SupportLevel of Functional SupportToolsPerson(s) involvedTeacher LedBehavior ContractTeacherStudentParentAdditional resourceProblem Solving WorksheetCompeting Behavior PathwayERASEThese are the Teacher-led supports that we will discuss as the practices your will establish to your tertiary continuum of supports.*Additional resource could be counselor, additional teacher, social worker, psychologist; basically an additional school staff member with knowledge/expertise about the student and/or the problem behavior**”Community Partners = agency support, behavior support consultant, etcBased on:Crone, D.A., & Horner, R.H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice? (2009). National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), Retrieved from
92 Behavior Contract Individualized class or school behavior plan Adjust goalsPrerequisite skillsShorter time periodsMore frequent reinforcementContract to address performance deficitContracts should be based on data that teacher already has collected. Could be data from grade-book (participation, attendance, tardies, homework completion, etc), office referrals, checklists, etc.
93 Behavioral Contracts Positive reinforcement intervention Clarify behavioral expectations for students and staff to carry out the intervention planInclude the student in designing the contract to increase motivationInclude parents in planning and reinforcement
94 Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts List student behaviorsCan be reduced or increasedBehavioral goals should usually be stated in positive, goal-oriented termsClearly defined, observableJenson, W., Rhode, G., & Reavis, H. (1994). The Tough Kid Tool Box. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Wright, J. (2011). Behavior Contracts. Intervention Central. Retrieved 2/17/2011 from:(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
95 Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts Contract ReinforcersA statement or section that explains the minimum conditions under which the student will earn a point, sticker, or other token for showing appropriate behaviorsAmount of behaviorAmount of reinforcementJenson, W., Rhode, G., & Reavis, H. (1994). The Tough Kid Tool Box. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Wright, J. (2011). Behavior Contracts. Intervention Central. Retrieved 2/17/2011 from:(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
96 Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts (continued) CollectionDescribe when the student will be able to redeem points earned for reward/recognition(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
97 Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts (continued) Bonus clauses (optional)can provide extra incentives for the student to follow the contractoffers the student some type of additional 'pay-off' for consistently reaching behavioral targets(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
98 Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts (continued) Negotiate and Document TermsDiscuss the plan and responsibilities of the student and staffAreas for signature.both teacher and student signaturesOther staff, parents, administratorsNegotiate & Document Terms:Possible questions from the audience: What happens when the student demonstrates a problem behavior that violates school or local school board policies or state law?-Local school Board policy and general statutes supersede behavior contracts.(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
99 My Contract: Race to 20! Sample Contracts These are my goals: These are my consequencesif I don’t meet my goals:My Contract:ResourcesPages 26-29These are my goals:Race to 20!These are my rewards if I meet my goals:
100 Problem Solving Meeting Foundations How are TertiaryPractices related tothe Problem SolvingProcess? Let’sexamine that together.IdentifyProblemsTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelDevelopHypothesisEvaluate andReviseAction PlanCollectand UseDataWe talked earlier about the problem solving process and now we are going to talk about several tertiary practices. How are these practices related to the problem solving steps? Let’s take a look on the next slide.Discuss andSelectSolutionsDevelop andImplementAction PlanProblem Solving Meeting Foundations
101 Teacher Led Support- How they connect to the problem solving process TIPs Problem Solving WorksheetCompeting Behavior PathwaysERASEIdentify the problemPrimary Problem StatementProblem BehaviorExplain the problemDevelop hypothesisPrecision Problem StatementEvaluate Setting events, antecedents, behavior and consequencesReason for engaging in the behaviorDiscuss and select solutionsSolution OptionsDesired alternative and strategies to address each pathway componentAppropriate behavior- what he/she should do insteadDevelop and implement action planAction PlanningWho/When listed in StrategiesSupport- plan for helping student engage in appropriate behaviorEvaluate and revise action planEvaluation PlanningPlan review.Evaluate- to determine if plan is effectiveTeacher Led Support can include a variety of strategies that assists teachers with applying the problem solving process at different levels of intensity. This chart lists the particular components of each of the 3 problem solving strategies that you will learn about in PBIS Module 3 training (TIPs Problem Solving Worksheet, Competing Behavior Pathways, and ERASE). What you can see is that each of these processes has all 5 components of the problem solving process. The TIPs problem solving worksheet can be used to assist with problem solve data related to the entire level of tertiary supports in the school or at the individual student level, depending upon the data that is available. The key concept is that you have data that allows you to address each of the 5 steps regardless of the practice that you select. The data should also be used to determine when and if more intensive individualized practices should be utilized.
102 TIPS Problem Solving Worksheet ResourcesPage 30Use during ActivitiesDate: ___________ School: ________________1. Primary Problem StatementProblem Statement elementsWho ___________________________________________________What __________________________________________________Where _________________________________________________When _________________________________________________Why ___________________________________________________2. Precision Problem StatementThe TIPS Problem Solving Worksheet follows the problem solving steps exactly. It can be particularly helpful to use when examining whole school or tertiary systems level data to determine the effectiveness of your practices. However, it could also be easily adapted to assist with problem solving for individual students, as it has all of the essential components of other function based assessments, providing you have the appropriate data.
103 3. Solutions Prevent Teach Acknowledge Correct Extinction Safety reduce probability of future or continued problem behaviorTeachincrease probability of positive behavior changeAcknowledgeProvide positive feedback when expected behavior occursCorrectSpecific feedback to increase probability of improved behavior after errorExtinctionreduce reward for problem behaviorSafetyremove occurrence or possibility of injury or harm)This is step 3 in the problem solving process. This is where you brainstorm and identify which solutions would be most appropriate to address the problem you identified. Be sure that the solutions are connected to the problem statement. Think about why a particular solution is more or less appropriate, given the precision problem statement that you wrote.
104 4. Action Planning 5. Evaluation Planning For solutions to be implemented, who will do what by when?5. Evaluation PlanningGoal Setting (what will it look like when you can say there is no longer a problem?)Data Collection (gather additional information)To measure outcomesTo measure fidelity of implementationSteps 4 and 5 are to document the implementation of the plan, identify a goal so you can determine success, and then reconvene to evaluate the plan after implementation for a specified amount of time.
105 Teacher-Led Functional Support: Competing Pathways Competing Behavior Pathways is another approach to teacher-led functional support.
106 Competing Pathways: Chart Behavior & Hypothesize SettingEventsAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesFor more complicated behaviors we can determine the function by using this competing pathways diagramming process
107 Competing Pathways: Identify Replacement Behavior(s) SettingEventsAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesDefine Alternative or Competing BehaviorThe next step in the process is defining acceptable alternative behavior. This is highlighted in the yellow box on the slide.What is the difference between the “desired alternative” and the “acceptable Alternative?”The desired alternative is the behavior that is your ultimate goal. It is the behavior you would see if a miracle happened overnight and when the student came back to school the problem no longer existed.The acceptable alternative(s) are the behaviors that you are teaching as successive approximations of the desired behavior. It is the behavior you are willing to live with until the student masters the new behavior he or she is learning. It may take multiple acceptable alternatives for a student to finally reach the desired alternative.AN EXAMPLE: Jody follows you around your classroom and pokes you, saying your name loudly anytime she needs assistance. If a miracle happened, tomorrow Jody would come in, sit in her seat, raise her hand, and wait for you to recognize her. However, you know that to get Jody to that desired behavior, first you will have to teach her pieces of that behavior: (1) not to poke you as she follows, (2) stay in a masking tape box you tape around her desk while raising her hand and calling your name, (3)sitting in her seat while raising her hand and calling your name, (4) sitting in her seat and raising her hand only….REMEMBER behavior changes in small increments with teaching, practice and coaching.AcceptableAlternativeAcceptableAlternativeAcceptableAlternativeAcceptableAlternativeMaintainingConsequencesDesiredAlternative
108 Competing Pathways: Identify Interventions ResourcesPage 32Competing Pathways: Identify InterventionsDesiredAlternativeAcceptableMaintainingConsequencesSettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorDesigning Functional InterventionsThis form was designed to help with the problem solving process of developing a PBIS plan.The functional assessment and hypothesis tell us the setting events, predictors or triggering antecedents, the problem behavior and the maintaining consequences.To complete the plan, the desired alternative behaviors and maintaining consequences need to be designed. The plan will consist of manipulating the events, the antecedents, teaching the desired behavior and manipulating the consequences.Refer participants to Handout #8, Designing Functional Interventions.SettingEventStrategiesAntecedentBehaviorTeachingConsequence
109 Case Study: Eddie Youtube video: Eddie Classroom Behavior
110 Case Study: Eddie Do we have a problem? What data do you have? What might you still need to collect?
111 Designing Functional Interventions SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesUse the information and data you have gathered to respond to each component of the competing behavior pathways form.Verbal disagreements with peers before classAsked to turn in homeworkVerbalDisagreementWith teacherAvoids hand-ing in home-work
112 Hypothesis What is your hypothesis about the problem behavior? When Eddie is ___________ and __________ (happens), hewhere/setting context/antecedenttypically responds by _________ to gain/avoid ____________ .behavior functionWrite a hypothesis statement about Eddie’s behavior.
113 Replacement BehaviorWhat do you want the student to do instead of the problem behavior?Will the behavior require shaping with a series of successive approximations of the desired behavior?When selecting solutions, consider teaching, re-teaching, reinforcement for demonstrating the replacement or desired alternative behavior.
114 Eddie will complete assigned homework SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesVerbalDisagreement with peers before classAsked to turn in homeworkVerbal Disagreement with teacherAvoids handing in homeworkAcceptableAlternativeRequest help/Write downassignmentsMaintainingConsequencesAdjusted workCompletion goalsDesiredBehaviorEddie will complete assigned homework
115 Utilizing the Competing Behavior Pathways Strategies Sheet How can you impact each area involved with the challenging behavior?Consider:InstructionInterventionsEnvironmental modificationConsider all of the ways you can intervene regarding setting events, trigger/antecedents, at the problem behavior level, and regarding consequences.
116 Intervention & Support Strategies: Eddie’s Plan EventStrategiesAntecedentStrategiesBehavior Teaching StrategiesConsequencesStrategiesComplete missing assignments in study hall. Earn free homework passes for every 8 assignments turned in on time.Teach Eddie how to request help and write down assignments.Re-teach and reinforce the homework submission routine.Teacher and studentswill utilizePeer MediationStrategies.the threat of the death penalty does not stop people from murdering; why do teachers think threatening to take away recess will stop target behaviors?” Dr. Laura RiffelIntervention & Support StrategiesDiscuss this slide with participants. It provides an example based Eddie.Note how many of these strategies require changes in adult behavior.
117 Implement the Strategies Who is responsible?Resources?When to review?Goal?Collect data during implementation
118 Eddie’s Plan Example Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Behavior Teaching StrategiesConsequencesStrategiesComplete missing assignments in study hall. Earn free homework passes for every 8 assignments turned in on time.Teach Eddie how to request help and write down assignments.Re-teach and reinforce the homework submission routine.Teacher and studentswill utilizePeer MediationStrategies.the threat of the death penalty does not stop people from murdering; why do teachers think threatening to take away recess will stop target behaviors?” Dr. Laura RiffelIntervention & Support StrategiesDiscuss this slide with participants. It provides an example based Eddie.Note how many of these strategies require changes in adult behavior.Plan review date: 11/19/2011We agree to the conditions of this plan.Eddie Smith _________________Student Parent_____________ _____________Teacher Team member
119 Evaluate Was the plan implemented consistently and with fidelity? Did it work?What changes need to be made?
120 Eddie’s Plan Review Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Behavior Teaching StrategiesConsequencesStrategiesComplete missing assignments in study hall. Earn free homework passes for every 8 assignments turned in on time. Update 11/19/11- Increased number of assignments completed by 60%. Eddie is earning free homework passes.Teacher and studentswill utilizePeer MediationStrategies.Update 11/19/11- 3 peers attended PM trng. 1 peer was observed using strategies with Eddie.Re-teach and reinforce the homework submission routine.Update 11/19/11- re-taught on 9/30/11; reinforced with Free homework passes, 6 earned to date.Teach Eddie how to request help and write down assignments.Update 11/19/11- Taught 9/30/11. Increased from 1 completed assignment/wk to 8 completed assignments/ wk.the threat of the death penalty does not stop people from murdering; why do teachers think threatening to take away recess will stop target behaviors?” Dr. Laura RiffelIntervention & Support StrategiesDiscuss this slide with participants. It provides an example based Eddie.Note how many of these strategies require changes in adult behavior.
121 Case Study Practice: Shane Watch this video clip ofShane’s behaviorin math class andidentify problems.WorkbookPage 12Please watch the video of Shane and work together with your team to complete the competing behavior pathways behavior forms in your workbook. While you might not have all of the information you need, because we only have data from one observation, make up any additional data that you need to complete the process.Practice with your team.
122 Teacher led Functional Assessment of Behavior: ERASE Resources Page 33-37The third teacher led functional assessment approach that we will cover is ERASE.
123 Evaluate Support Appropriate Supplemental Resources Page 34ERASE problem behaviorExplainWhat is the problem?EvaluateReasonHow will you know if it works?What is he/she getting out of it or getting away from?As we previously outlined, you can see from this slide how ERASE follows each of the 5 problem solving steps.Scott, T. (n.d.). “ERASE” functional assessment and behavior intervention planning prompts. Retrieved fromSupportAppropriateHow can you help this happen more often?What would you like him/her to do instead?(Scott, n.d.)
124 ERASE: Explain What is the problem? Create an operational definition of behaviorDescribe why the behavior is a problemDetermine if student can engage in appropriate behavior.List what has already been tried.An operational definition of behavior begins with a description of its topography – what exactly does the behavior look like?Dimensions such as frequency, duration, and intensity will also be necessary. For example, the behavior “talks out” may not, by itself, be seen as a major issue for many teachers. However, if it were known that the behavior occurred times per hour, for durations of over 3 hours per episode, or loud enough to be clearly heard from a distance of 200 feet, it is much more likely that the behavior would be treated as a priority issue. This also would help to define why the behavior is considered a problem.Teachers also should be prepared to present evidence of the types of past intervention strategies used, how those strategies were applied, and the outcomes of those strategies.PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
125 ERASE: Reason What is student getting or avoiding? Determine what times, locations, contexts, conditions, etc. tend to predict or precede:problem behaviorappropriate behaviorThis information may be compiled by considering past interactions with the student. The more times a person has interacted with the student, the better information they will be able to provide. When memories alone aren’t sufficient, any available school or classroom data (e.g., office referrals, incident reports, etc.) may be helpful in answering the questions.PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
126 ERASE: Reason Determine what types of events tend to follow behavior? peers, instruction, consequences, etc.after problem behaviorafter appropriate behaviorRemember when considering the antecedents and consequences that the environment consists of all actions, items, and events. The teacher, peers, tasks, instruction, and other subtle conditions are part of the environment and must be considered.
127 ERASE: ReasonMake a guess at the function – why do you think he/she is doing this?access to (persons, objects, attention, etc.)escape or avoid (persons, activities, attention, etc.)Based on the information you’ve gathered, make a guess about what the student is getting or avoiding.
128 ERASE: Appropriate What would you like student to do instead? Determine what times, locations, contexts, conditions, etc. tend to predict or precede:fair pair – incompatible with problem (can’t do at same time)functional – meets the same function as problem behaviorReplacement behaviors are best determined by persons familiar with the environment. The first step in determining an appropriate replacement is to ask, “what do successful students do under these conditions?” This provides an example of a relevant behavior in that environment. When we select behaviors that suit us but are not relevant to the student it is unlikely that the student will use that behavior as a replacement. Similarly, the replacement we choose must be acceptable to us but also must work for the student in terms of meeting his/her needs (i.e., function). Selecting effective replacement behaviors requires consideration of each of these issues.PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
129 ERASE: Support How can you help this happen more often? Determine how the replacement behavior and intervention plan will be taughtRules (what it is and -- when, where, how, and why to use behavior)Examples (modeling and use of naturally occurring examples)Practice (opportunities to practice with teacher feedback)Replacement behaviors must be taught to the student and then teachers must arrange environments to create success opportunities for students – following that up with reinforcement to maintain the behavior. Negative consequences for negative behavior also need to be considered. All strategies considered here must involve thought of what is realistic for school personnel to implement in a consistent manner.PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
130 ERASE: SupportConsider realistic routines and physical arrangements that could be implemented to facilitate student success (avoid predictable failure and create success opportunities)prompts and reminderssuperviseavoid triggersConsider all of the ways we can support the appropriate student behavior by reminding, providing supervision, and preventing triggers for the inappropriate behavior.
131 ERASE: SupportDetermine appropriate consequences for replacement and problem behaviors – and consider what is realistic for you to doreinforcement (matches function)correction (how might this happen?)negative consequences (matches function)natural (try to keep it as realistic as possible)
132 ERASE: Evaluate How will you know if it works? Consider realistic strategies for measuring behaviorkeep it simpleconsider times and conditions where measurement would be particularly meaningful and realisticThe definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.Albert EinsteinSpecific and measurable statements about expected or desired behaviors and levels of performance at the end of an instructional time periodDuring a 20 minute recess period, plato will verbally respond to peers in a positive or neutral manner in 80% of opportunities for three consecutive days by the end of the first termPBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
133 ERASE: EvaluateConsider what your measure will look like when the behavior is no longer a problemmeasurable behaviorby what time should this happen?CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A MEASUREMENT PLANDetermine what questions you want to answer by asking what information is logically important in our efforts to create students success.Determine what data are necessary (i.e., what needs to be collected) to answer questions.Determine the simplest way to get data by considering what is realistic in terms of time and effort for the persons being asked to implement.Put the system in place so that all use in a consistent manner to collect information.Analyze information gathered to answer questions, evaluate strategies, and drive policy and practice
134 Activity: ERASE Process Review the data for ElvinWrite the corresponding letter from the ERASE process that best describes where the information would be entered on the ERASE formWorkbookPages 13-14
135 Activity: Paper Kids Do you have students like this? How do you help? Take a paper cutout of a student. Have the audience name setting events, triggers, antecendents that they frequently see. For each one named, rip off a piece of the paper student.Option: When you rip off the final pieces ask if schools know how to put the pieces back together. Demonstrate positives: showing patience, teaching the student new skills, etc and tape the student back togetherThis is what the behavior charting – especially the manipulation of setting events, triggers, & consequences is all about
136 General Recommendations For Tertiary Practices Keep doing what is already workingAlways look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effectAvoid defining a large number of goalsDo a small number of things wellWhen analyzing data recognize that it will never show 100% --Sometimes you may hear teachers say “it happens all the time” or “it happens everywhere”. That may be accurate but where is the behavior occurring most frequently. Likewise we need to look for the most frequently occurring maintaining consequence also.For example, if a behavior occurs 33% of the time following a teacher direction that is high level of predictability even though there may be other antecedents identified.
137 General Recommendations For Tertiary Practices Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possibleWhen it comes to problem behavior nothing is 100%When analyzing data recognize that it will never show 100% --Sometimes you may hear teachers say “it happens all the time” or “it happens everywhere”. That may be accurate but the key is to ask what is happening most frequently.For example, if a behavior occurs 33% of the time following a teacher direction that is high level of predictability even though there may be other antecedents identified.
138 Activity: Tertiary Practices Evaluate and plan for Tertiary PracticesWorkbookPage 15
139 Additional training available for the team in your school that will be providing support and practicing the FBA/BIP processesSchools should contact a behavior support consultant or their regional PBIS coordinator to access this training.
140 Problem Solving Meeting Foundations 3/27/2017Let’s Practice!Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelIdentifyProblemsDevelopHypothesisEvaluate andReviseAction Plan.Collectand UseDataLet’s practice problem solving at the individual student level.Discuss andSelectSolutionsDevelop andImplementAction PlanProblem Solving Meeting FoundationsNewton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
141 Let’s review data for Brandon. 3/27/2017Using the Referrals by Student report as a Universal Screening Tool- Who?Let’s review data for Brandon.BHUse the data to identify individual students in need of tertiary supports.Student with 2-5 are candidates for more support in behavior, academic, or both areas. Students with 6 or more referrals are good candidates for tertiary supports.How many referrals does Brandon have? Let’s continue to review Brandon’s ODR data.Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
143 When?When is Brandon receiving referrals? What questions would you want to ask about time of day? (what is happening during that time, where, what subject, who is the teacher, who is he with, etc.)
144 What?P agg is physical aggression. M- is for minor referrals.
148 Problem Solving Meeting Foundations 3/27/2017Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelIdentifyProblemsDevelopHypothesisEvaluate andReviseAction Plan.Collectand UseDataTime to define hypothesis. Why are the behaviors occurring? This leads to more solvable solutions.Discuss andSelectSolutionsDevelop andImplementAction PlanProblem Solving Meeting Foundations(Newton, et al, 2009)Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
149 Problem StatementsWrite a “problem statement” that specifies the precise nature of the problemThe more Ws (what, when, where, who, why) you incorporate into the problem statement, the more precise the problem statement will beThe more precise the problem statement, the easier it will be to generate a solution that “fits” the problem(Newton, et al, 2009)
150 Problem-Solving Action Plan Write your Precise Problem Statement here.Implementation and EvaluationPrecise Problem Statement, based on review of data(What, When, Where, Who, Why)Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Safety)Who?By When?Goal with Timeline,Fidelity & Outcome Measures, & UpdatesSSJAAll teachers11/1/1011/3/10JM will earn 80% of his daily points on his daily progress report per day for 4/5 days per week by 12/18/10BH has received 7 ODRs during the first grading period for disrespectful behaviors including inappropriate language and harassment in the classroom during reading possibly motivated by peer attention.Re-teach Responsibility lessonsImplement CICOReinforce on-task behaviors with DPR(Newton, et al, 2009)
151 Problem Solving Meeting Foundations 3/27/2017IdentifyProblemsQuick ReviewTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelDevelopHypothesisEvaluate andReviseAction Plan.Collectand UseDataReady for hypothesis and solution buildingDiscuss andSelectSolutionsDevelop andImplementAction PlanProblem Solving Meeting Foundations(Newton, et al, 2009)Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
152 Solutions – Generic Strategies 3/27/2017Solutions – Generic StrategiesPrevent – Remove or alter “trigger” for problem behaviorDefine & Teach – Define behavioral expectations; provide demonstration/instruction in expected behavior (alternative to problem behaviorReward/reinforce – The expected/alternative behavior when it occurs; prompt for it, as necessaryWithhold reward/reinforcement – For the problem behavior, if possible (“Extinction”)Use non-rewarding/non-reinforcing corrective consequences – When problem behavior occursAlthough not a “solution strategy,” Safety may need to be considered (i.e., procedures that may be required to decrease likelihood of injuries or property damage)The TIPS model provides a framework for developing solutions. There are five main areas for intervention, not including safety.(Newton, et al, 2009)Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
153 Establish behavior contract and reward earning 80% of points per day. Problem statement: BH has received 7 ODRs during the first grading period for disrespectful behaviors including inappropriate language and harassment in the classroom during reading possibly motivated by peer attention.3/27/2017Prevent “Trigger”Define & TeachReteach Respect lessons emphasizing alternatives to cursing . Teach 5 alternative phrases to express frustration.Reward/ReinforceEstablish behavior contract and reward earning 80% of points per day.Withhold RewardTeach peers to withhold attention.Corrective consequenceAsk for alternative way of expressing his thoughts/feelings. Suggest alternatives when necessary.OtherSafetySame problem, changing reinforcer to match hypothesis is good.(Newton, et al, 2009)Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
154 Problem-Solving Action Plan Write Solutions here.Implementation and EvaluationPrecise Problem Statement, based on review of data(What, When, Where, Who, Why)Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Safety)Who?By When?Goal with Timeline,Fidelity & Outcome Measures, & UpdatesSSJAAll teachers11/1/1011/3/10JM will earn 80% of his daily points on his daily progress report per day for 4/5 days per week by 12/18/10JM has received 2 ODRs during the first grading period for disruptive behaviors in the classroom during reading possibly motivated by attention.Re-teach Respect lessons.Teach 5 alternative expressions.Behavior Contract and Reinforce 80% use of appropriate language.(Newton, et al, 2009)
155 Problem Solving Meeting Foundations 3/27/2017IdentifyProblemsQuick ReviewTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelDevelopHypothesisEvaluate andReviseAction Plan.Collectand UseDataReady for hypothesis and solution buildingDiscuss andSelectSolutionsDevelop andImplementAction PlanProblem Solving Meeting Foundations(Newton, et al, 2009)Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
156 Problem-Solving Action Plan Document Implementation here.DocumentGoal here.Problem-Solving Action PlanImplementation and EvaluationPrecise Problem Statement, based on review of data(What, When, Where, Who, Why)Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Safety)Who?By When?Goal with Timeline,Fidelity & Outcome Measures, & UpdatesSSJAAll teachers11/1/1011/3/10BH will earn 80% of his daily points on his behavior contract per day for 4/5 days per week by 12/18/10JM has received 2 ODRs during the first grading period for disruptive behaviors in the classroom during reading possibly motivated by attention.Re-teach Responsibility lessonsImplement CICOReinforce on-task behaviors with DPR(Newton, et al, 2009)
157 Problem Solving Meeting Foundations 3/27/2017IdentifyProblemsQuick ReviewTeam Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) ModelDevelopHypothesisEvaluate andReviseAction Plan.Collectand UseDataReady for action planningDiscuss andSelectSolutionsDevelop andImplementAction PlanProblem Solving Meeting Foundations(Newton, et al, 2009)Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
159 Problem-Solving Action Plan Evaluate here.Problem-Solving Action PlanImplementation and EvaluationPrecise Problem Statement, based on review of data(What, When, Where, Who, Why)Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Safety)Who?By When?Goal with Timeline,Fidelity & Outcome Measures, & UpdatesSSJAAll teachers11/1/1011/3/10JM will earn 80% of his daily points on his daily progress report per day for 4/5 days per week by 12/18/10JM has received 2 ODRs during the first grading period for disruptive behaviors in the classroom during reading possibly motivated by attention.11/1 BM has shown some initial progress with his behavior contract and he earned 80% of his points for the past 8 days. Update: continue with the plan. Consider next- Add a self-monitoring component and check back in 2 weeks.Re-teach Responsibility lessonsImplement CICOReinforce on-task behaviors with DPRNewton,, et. al., 2009
160 Problem Solving Practice Use your disciplinary data and the results of the team activities to practice the problem solving processIf you do not have your own data, practice data is provided in the Resources pages 38-40Use the TIPS problem solving worksheet to assist you with the processWorkbookPage 16Speakers note for the practice data: teams will use Katie’s data to practice problem solving. Some teams seem to struggle because she demonstrates Physical aggression, disruption, and tardies but the setting is listed most often as the Hallway. Be sure to have teams talk about the idea that you can’t always just look at the area with the highest number because you might be missing another factor. In this case, classroom is also very high. Help teams to discuss that it is possible that the tardies and some of the other behaviors are happening in the hall and others are happening in the classroom. Also, help them to consider the need to question, what is the location for tardies?ResourcesPage 38-40
162 Tertiary Action Planning WorkbookPage 17Review your individual student discipline dataApply the problem solving stepsDevelop your Module 3 Action PlanWhat is the plan for individual students with intensive needs?What is the plan for data & support systems to address students with intensive needs?
163 Action Planning Use your Implementation Inventory Data WorkbookPage 18Action PlanningUse your Implementation Inventory DataConsider Universal, Secondary and Tertiary ImplementationReview the action steps your team has developed during training, prioritize items, and finalize your action plan (Action Plan document)You got to be careful if you don’t know where you’re going, because you might get there. Yogi BerraLong Range Planning ResourcesTo assess where the school is now and what needs to be accomplished next year, have the participants complete the PBIS Survey during team time.Teams can also take a look at the Implementation Checklist during team time to determine where the school is and what needs to be addressed next.Look at office referral data and compare to previous data to determine what has been accomplished this year.Take time to observe and collect year-end data for comparison to beginning of year data.
164 Additional Tools and Support All references are cited in the reference section of your workbookTechnical Assistance—Your Regional or LEA CoordinatorHelp is On the WayThis is a list of resources that will assist you as your team does your work.PBIS.org is a wonderful website that has a lot of information and examples.Technical assistance—contact your Regional or LEA CoordinatorResourcesPages 42-45
165 Conclusion of Module 3 Questions? Please complete and return your training evaluation formThank you!