4 Even Cows, Sheep, & PigsAll Products of Selective Breeding (Artificial Selection)
5 HybridizationCrossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms produces hybrids* Hybrids can be different species crossed together or different types within the same species.
7 INBREEDINGInbreeding = continued breeding of similar individuals (ex. pure breed dogs)Has risks… increases breed’s susceptibility to disease & deformitiesGolden retrievers - epilepsyDalmations - hereditary deafness
8 Increasing VariationBreeders can increase variation in a population by inducing mutations Mutation = any change in DNA Mutations can happen randomly, as in this Scottish fold cat. Cat enthusiasts bred these cats from a single cat with a mutation for the ears.
9 Mutations produce new kinds of bacteria ex. oil-eating bacteria
10 Mutations produce new kinds of plants Ex. day lilies, bananas, citrus fruitsPolyploid plants have multiple sets of chromosomes.
12 1. Dogs and other domestic animals were produced through many years of _______ breeding. 2. Two dissimilar organisms crossed together is called ___________________ 3. Purebred dogs can sometimes have poor health due to __________ 4. Any change in DNA is a ________ 5. Designer dogs, such as the puggle are also called _______________
13 13-2 Manipulating DNA How are changes made to DNA? Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA & its chemical properties to study & change DNA molecules *This is GENETIC ENGINEERING
14 Different techniques are used… to extract DNA from cellsto cut DNA into smaller piecesto identify the sequence of bases in a DNA moleculeto make unlimited copies of DNA
15 = making changes in the DNA code of a living organism Genetic engineering= making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
16 a.) DNA extraction – simple chemical process to get DNA out of cell; cells are opened & DNA is separated from other cell partsb.) cutting DNA – restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific sequences of nucleotides
24 d.) recombinant DNA – DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources e.) making copiesPolymerase chain reaction (PCR)used to make multiple copies of genes
25 1. Making changes to DNA is called _________________ _______________ 2 1. Making changes to DNA is called _________________ _______________ 2. A ________________ enzyme is used to cut DNA into pieces. 3. Gel __________________________ is used to separate DNA fragments 4. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make ______________ of DNA 5. Scientists can _________ DNA from any cell or body tissue. 6. When DNA from two different organisms is combined, it is called _______________ DNA 7. A DNA _____________ can be read to determine paternity or solve crimes
26 Transgenic Organisms Contains genes from other species Microorganisms (bacteria)Animals (mouse; medical uses)Plants (agricultural uses)*GM Crops
27 Gene causes these mice to glow in the dark Gene causes these mice to glow in the dark. Normally, the gene is found in jellyfish.
30 Cloningmember of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single celleasy to clone single cell organismsmulticellular organisms more difficult to clonea twin is a natural clone1997 Dolly the sheep cloned, 1st mammal
33 CC was the first cloned cat (Rainbow is the original) CC was the first cloned cat (Rainbow is the original). CC is short for "Carbon Copy". What is interesting is the color pattern for the clone is different from the original.The reason is that the genes for color randomly turn on or off for the skin cells, creating random coloration even on the cloned cat.
34 How Can Cloning Be Useful? 1. Save endangered species by storing DNA and cloning2. Make multiple copies of a useful gene (insulin for diabetics)3. Clone spare parts, like organs or bone marrow4. Create experimental groups for studying (animals)5. Clone "special" animals, pets or horses
35 1. An animal that contains the genes of another species, like the glow-in-the-dark mice, is called a __________ organism. 2. A _______ is a genetically identical organism. 3. In humans, a naturally occurring clone is a ________ 4. The first mammal that was cloned from a skin cell was a _______
36 5. With regard to cloning...it is necessary to have which of the following? Check all that apply... ___Cell from the adult to be cloned ___Egg with nucleus intact ___Embryo ___Surrogate mother ___ Sperm ___ Stem cells ___ Egg with nucleus removed
37 BIOETHICS1. I would use genetic engineering to remove a harmful gene from my unborn child, such as the gene that causes cystic fibrosis.2. I would use genetic engineering to remove an abnormal (but not necessarily harmful) gene from my unborn child; such as the gene that causes dwarfism.
38 3. I would use genetic engineering to remove a gene that is not desirable, such as the gene that causes baldness.4. I would use genetic engineering to change a gene in my unborn child, such as their hair color or eye color.5. I would use genetic engineering to add a gene to my child that is not human – such as a gene from another organism that could improve sight or running ability.