2 HEALTH & WELLNESS What is your definition of health? Past definitions of health focused on “not being sick”Modern definitions of health emphasize holism.WHO (World Health Organization) states that “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.How do you define “wellness”?Wellness is achieving the best health possible in all 5 dimensions of one’s lifeFew people ever achieve total wellnessWellness is an ongoing process throughout life
3 HEALTH What is optimal health? As a health care worker, you care for and support the client’s health potential. This means proving “holistic” care.Holistic care is caring for and supporting all aspects of health, including:PhysicalEmotionalSocialSpiritualIntellectualIn health care, we have to care for all aspects, not just the physical illness b/c each aspect depends on the other.
4 DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH PHYSICAL HEALTH Body is strong, fit and disease freeInfluenced by genetics and lifestyleContributing factors include:Nutritious dietExerciseBeing smoke freeLimiting alcoholProper restAs a health care worker you can promote your client’s physical health by:Maintaining a safe, clean and comfortable environmentPreparing nutritious mealsAssisting with physical activity
5 DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH EMOTIONAL HEALTH Not just the absence of negative feelingsAbility to function well and adapt appropriately to circumstances.Emotionally healthy people feel good about themselves, have self esteem, self control, and self awareness.Emotionally unhealthy people are often insecure.Life events can affect emotional healthAs a health care worker you must:Avoid judgingLearn to read client’s emotions
6 DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH SOCIAL HEALTH Achieved through stable and satisfying relationships.We all have the need for:Companionship/belongingComfort, support, encouragementReassurance of one’s self worthHelp, guidance, adviceA social support systemSocially healthy people treat other with respect, warmth, openness and are trusting.Socially unhealthy people show little regard for others.Older adults and immigrants may feel socially isolated and lonelyAs a health care worker you are part of your client’s support system.You provide practical and emotional support
7 DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH SPIRITUAL HEALTH Achieved through the belief in a higher purpose.May or may not include religionSpiritually healthy means having a clear understanding of one’s own morals, values and beliefs.Spiritually healthy people are compassionate, honest, humble and forgiving.Emphasis on personal fulfillmentAs a health care worker, you must respect your client’s spirituality
8 DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH INTELLECTUAL HEALTH Achieved by keeping the mind active and creative throughout life.Intellectually healthy people:Maintain curiosity throughout lifeAre interested in the world around themAnalyze, reason and solve problemsOpen minded and eager to learnThose with poor intellectual health:Are passiveDo not participateOften suffer from poor emotional, social and physical healthAs a health care worker, you can help client’s to participate in activities
9 ILLNESS & DISABILITYWhat is the difference between illness and disability?Illness – loss of physical or mental healthDisability – loss of physical or mental functionRemember disabled does not mean illIllness of disabilities can be acute or chronic (short or long term/permanent)Regardless of the illness or disability, the health care worker must try to help the client achieve their optimal healthNo 2 clients will experience illness/disability the same way, however, there are some common reactionsFear and anxiety * DenialSadness and grief * AngerDepression
10 ILLNESS & DISABILITYFactors affecting a client’s experience may include:The nature of the illnessAgePhysical fitnessPainPrognosisPersonalityCultureSupport
11 ILLNESS & DISABILITYThose will a new disability or illness may experience change and loss including:Change in routineChange in work lifeChange in family lifeChange in sexual functionChange in self-imageLoss of independenceLoss of dignityAs a health care worker you must ensure that stigma and discrimination do not affect your careStigma – a characteristic that marks someone as different or flawedDiscrimination – treating people unfairly based on their group membership
12 DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH What makes a population healthy?Determinants of health are the factors that determine health status.There are 12 key factorsIncome and social statusSocial support networksEducation and literacyEmployment and working conditionsSocial SupportsPhysical environmentsPersonal health practices and coping skillsHealthy child developmentBiology and genetic endowmentHealth ServicesGenderCulture
13 DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH INCOME & SOCIAL STATUSIncome determines living conditions & dietSOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKSSupport from family, friends, community improves healthEDUCATION & LITERACYHealth improves with higher educationImproves socioeconomic statusImproves the ability to access health informationEMPLOYMENT & WORKING CONDITIONSUnemployment, stressful and unsafe work are associated with poor healthA less stressful/demanding job improves quality and length of life
14 DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH SOCIAL SUPPORTSResources that are available for supportPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTSPollution in the air, water, soil can cause several adverse health effects.PERSONAL HEALTH PRACTICES/COPING SKILLSIndividual choices influence other health factorsChoices are affected by work, live, learn, playHEALTHY CHILD DEVELOPMENTGreatly influenced by housing, community, family income, parents education, diet, exercise, genetics and access to health careBIOLOGY & GENETIC ENDOWMENTCan predispose people to particular diseases.
15 DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH HEALTH SERVICESServices designed to maintain and promote health, prevent disease and restore health have an impact on one’s health.GENDERMany health issues are gender relatedCULTURELack of access due to cultureCulture affects healthThe interrelationship of these factors is very important. Why?