Presentation on theme: "NASA and NOAA space missions for Ozone Research"— Presentation transcript:
1 NASA and NOAA space missions for Ozone Research Ken JucksNASA HQ, Earth Science Division
2 40 Years of BUV Observations Nimbus-4 BUVNimbus-7 SBUVNimbus-7 TOMSNOAA-9 SBUV-2NOAA-11Meteor-3 TOMSNOAA-14GOMEEarth Probe TOMSNOAA-16SCIAMACHY1977 Amendment of Clean Air ActEOS Aura OMIGOME-2OMPS19701980199020002010Discovery of Polar O3 Depletion
3 Merged Backscatter UV observations of total O3 from TOMS and SBUV flights modelmeasurement
4 First image of the Antarctic Ozone hole First image of the Antarctic Ozone hole. This image was produced from the TOMS data in 1984, and was first published in NY Times in late ‘85. Subsequently, images like this appeared in magazines and newspapers all over the world.A rare splitting of the Antarctic ozone hole captured by TOMS in The split occurred because of the splitting of the polar vortex (circumpolar winds).
6 TOMS Firsts!Detection of precursors of severe weather in total O3 data.Mapping of Antarctic O3 hole and its evolution.Dynamical influences on tropical trop O3.Surface UV estimation in all weather conditions.Compilation of volcanic SO2 budget.Identification of sources of desert dust.Mapping of smoke plumes over land (incl. Greenland).Estimation of aerosol absorption OD.TOMS was launched with modest expectations. At one time Shelby Tilford commented that he couldn’t pay people to look at the TOMS data. This is certainly not the case today. There are hundreds of papers published or presented each year that use the TOMS data in one fashion or another. They are widely considered as a Gold Standard for monitoring the Earth from space. Susan Solomon, a member of the National Academy, has called the TOMS team a National treasure.For TOMS, discovery was not a quest but result of quarter century of dedicated teamwork
7 NASA - NOAA SBUV Cooperation Under a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between NASA and NOAA agreed to in ~1984NOAA launches and operates a series of SBUV/2 instruments for ozone monitoringNOAA is responsible for data production and archivalNASA is responsible for prelaunch and in orbit calibrationNASA supports development of new ozone retrieval algorithmsNPOESS OMPS will be the next generation ozone monitoring instrument. OMPS consists of 3 modules:The OMPS nadir total column mapper is a TOMS-like ozone mapping instrumentThe OMPS nadir profiler is an SBUV-like vertical profile instrumentThe OMPS limb profiler makes high vertical resolution ozone profile measurements (currently on NPP only)
8 Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) DescriptionPurpose: Monitors the total column and vertical profile of ozonePredecessor Instruments: TOMS, SBUV, GOME, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHYApproach:Nadir push broomCCD spectrometersSwath width: 2600 kmAlgorithm Status: Use TOMS/SBUV heritage approaches for Nadir InstrumentsStatusFlight Unit #1 Calibration underwayLimb Sub-System Re-manifestedInstrument 50/50 cost share NOAA and NASANASA to develop algorithmNOAA to support operational users
9 OMPS TeamAt this point, over 300 people have contributed to the progress of the OMPS mission and, thus, to this presentation. Instead of giving an incomplete list of them, I decided to provide an incomplete list of their organizations:Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation(and its subcontractors)The Integrated Program Office (NOAA)Northrop Grumman CorporationRaytheon CompanyNASA, DoD, DOCThe Aerospace CorporationAtmospheric and Environmental Research IncorporatedScience Systems and Applications IncorporatedThe University of ArizonaHampton University
10 OMPS Instrument Design Total Ozone MapperUV Backscatter, grating spectrometer, 2-D CCDTOMS, SBUV(/2), GOME(-2), OMI, SCIAMACHY110 deg. cross track, 300 to 380 nm spectralLimb ProfilerUV/Visible Limb Scatter, prism, 2-D CCD arraySOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SAGE III, SCIAMACHYThree 100-KM vertical slits, 290 to 1000 nm spectralNadir ProfilerSBUV(/2), GOME(-2), SCIAMACHY, OMINadir view, 250 km cross track, 270 to 310 nm spectralThe calibration concept uses working and reference solar diffusers.Some changes in numbers (2.23 degrees to 1.9 degrees) and position of components.Old instrument picture.Heritage instruments are providing product development, and algorithm and application testing.For example, SAGE III limb measurements pointingFor example, OMI Products into assimilation systemsCCD Charge-Coupled DeviceTOMS Total Ozone Mapping SpectrometerSBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instrumentGOME Global Ozone Monitoring ExperimentOMI Ozone Monitoring InstrumentSCIAMACHY SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHYSOLSE Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding ExperimentLORE Limb Ozone Retrieval ExperimentOSIRIS Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager SystemSAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ExperimentOMPS` Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite
11 OMPS Sensor characteristics compared to heritage OMPS sensor and algorithm design include improvements to enhance performance (green indicates design improvement)Improved ozone profile, temperature and climatologies.Improved ozone profile correctionUse of surface UV reflectivity database.Use of co-located UV Cloud pressure determination using OMI dataMultiple TripletsCloud top pressureOthers (see presentation).Algorithm improvementsQVD and Aluminum AluminumAluminumMultiple Diffusers 110 degrees Scanning = 53 degrees110 degreesIFOV CCD PMTCCDDetectors 6 Channels and DOAS 6 wavelengths22 channelsChannel selection 1nm - .45nm THIS DOESN’T Look right. Discrete bands.41nmSpectral resolution307nm to 383nm 308.6, 313.5,317.5, 322.3331.2, 360.4 nm300nm to 380 nmBands RangeOMITOMSOMPS
12 OMPS Total Column Requirements Specification EDR/AttributeAppendix D EDR requirementsHorizontal cell size50 NadirHorizontal Reporting IntervalVertical Cell Size60 KmSolar Zenith Angle (SZA) coverageSZA < 80 degVertical Coverage0 to 60 KmMeasurement Rangemilli-atm-cmMeasurement AccuracyTC > 450 milli-atm-cm16 milli-atm-cm250 milli-atm-cm<TC< 450 milli-atm-cm13 milli-atm-cmTC < 250 milli-atm-cm9.5 milli-atm-cmMeasurement Precision7.75 milli-atm-cm + 1.1% of Measured Ozone over 450milli-atm-cm7.7 milli-atm-cm6.0 milli-atm-cmMapping uncertainty, 1 Sigma5 KmMaximum Local Average Revisit Time24 hrsLatencyNPP min NPOESS - 28 minMeasurement Degradation Conditions (OMPS degradation)Total Column Accuracy if Sulfur Dioxide Index > 6 milli-atm-cm15 milli-atm-cm + 3SOITotal Column Precision if Sulfur Dioxide Index > 6 milli-atm-cm6 milli-atm-c, + 1.5SOI
13 Ozone EDR Products: Properties and Performance Table 1. Total Column Ozone EDR Performance.Measurement Parameter SpecificationHorizontal Cell SizeRange DU to 650 DUAccuracy DUPrecision DU + 0.5%Long-term Stability % over 7 yearsTable 2. Ozone Profile EDR Performance.Measurement Parameter SpecificationVertical Cell Size KMVertical Coverage Tropopause to 60 KMHorizontal Cell Size KMRange to 15 ppmvAccuracy Below 15 KM Greater of 20% or 0.1 ppmvAbove 15 KM Greater of 10% or 0.1 ppmvPrecision Below 15 KM Greater of 10% or 0.1 ppmv15 to 50 KM Greater of 3% or 0.05 ppmv50 to 60 KM Greater of 10% or 0.1 ppmvLong-term Stability % over 7 yearsThe performance for Total Column Accuracy and Precision is better than these numbers for most of the range.Long-term stability in from the start because of monitoring requirements. OMPS was designed with Climate in mind.
14 OMPS Limb Algorithm Status Limb Profile Algorithm Technical ContentOzone Limb Profiles (LP) are successfully retrieved from four systems today (GOMOS, SCIAMACHY,OSIRIS & SAGE III)NASA has developed an Ozone LP algorithm, and data from these systems are processed for ozone researchOperational ProductionPOES SBUV/2 provides a model for NASA/NOAA cooperation to process OMPS LP data.Instrument calibration, data cal/val, performance monitoring, algorithm adjustments, and operational processingOzone Profile ComparisonOctober 10, 2002OMPS-NPOMPS-LP
15 Multi-Instrument Ozone Profile Data Ozone Concentration [cm-3]Limb Scatter (OSIRIS)SAGE 2MLSNASA Science Team analysis on existing data increase confidence that we can meet NASA OMPS Limb goals.OSIRIS data courtesy of University of Saskatchewan
16 OMPS Limb Algorithm Plan Continue SBUV/2 model of NASA/NOAA cooperation to process OMPS LP data.NASA led team with NOAA membersAlgorithm development and improvementInstrument calibration, Instrument performance monitoring, & data cal/valAdjusting algorithms for specific instrument performance issuesDevelop long-term ozone profile data set: SAGE II to Aura MLS to OMPSDevelop algorithm and calibration for operational data productionResearch Data ProductionNASA Ozone PEATE provides facility for algorithm development, research data processing and long-term data set production.Additional OMPS PEATE resources for meeting OMPS Limb requirements are baselined to launchOperational Data ProductionUse SBUV/2 Model: NASA/NOAA team produces algorithm, instrument calibration, performance monitoring, algorithm adjustments, and operational algorithmCurrent operational SBUV2 data processed by NESDISFuture operational OMPS LP data could be produced by NPOESS Data Exploitation (NDE).NDE adapts operational algorithm for NDE systemAll operational users supported by NOAA NDE
17 Expected Applications of OMPS EDRs, SDRs, Intermediate and other Products OperationalAssimilation into NWPOzone Hole MonitoringUV Index ForecastAir Quality ForecastsHazards (Volcanic Ash)Space Environment (Mg II)ClimateOzone TrendsCloud ReflectivitySurface UV TrendsAerosol TrendsAtmospheric Chem.Process StudiesOperational O3, SO2, Aerosol Index (Smoke and Ash),Assimilation development to exploit additional data in NWM is underway at NASA, NOAA and NavyOzone Trends include total and profile.Better vertical resolution will lead to improved process studies and models.Atmospheric chemistry improvements will be at both short- and long-term time scales.The ozone recovery is tied into climate change through methane, water and heating. Nature paper.Aerosols Index and Aerosol Profile products.New Plot for 2021 at the 2022 AMS meeting in … 2021 picture from OMPS was cut off the slide.
18 Space–Based Remote Sensing for Atmospheric Ozone Measurements UV/Vis Backscatteror IR/MW EmissionsEarthSunUV/Vis Limb Scatteror IR/MW EmissionsSolar, Stellar or Lunar OccultationOccultation – not enough coverage from one platform (Stellar occultation GOMOS)Limb MW bigNadir UV/VIS, IR/MW insufficient vertical resolutionLimb IR detector technology developmentalChoiceMapper UV BackscatterLimb Profiler UV/VisNadir Profiler UV BS for heritage and risk reductionCrIS Ozone Product in Polar Night
19 EOS Aura Aura Launched VAFB, July 15, 2004 Orbit: Polar: 705 km, sun-synchronous, 98o incl., ascending 1:45 PM equator crossing time.Aura follows Aqua in the same orbit by <7 minutes. Orbit position moved closer to Aqua to improve science – crossing time unchanged.Main science objectives: stratospheric ozone recovery; air quality; climate changeFour Instruments:HIRDLS (High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, Univ. Of Col/NCAR./ Oxford U. K.)MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, JPL)OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Netherlands/ Finland)TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer, JPL)Level 1 mission success requirements have been metAll instruments have delivered data to the DAACSome teams are reprocessing based on validation measurementsSenior review in 2009Main data validation program will be complete in Some remaining validation requirements for OMISpacecraft in good shapeDec 2007 formatter anomaly – recovered all dataFuel sufficient for 2015 orbit loweringAura instrumentfields of viewHIRDLSMLSOMITESAura
20 HIRDLSLimb sounding filter IR radiometer µm range, 1 km vertical resolutionJoint U.S., U.K. science team.Instrument is currently off due to recent chopper wheel stall (March, 2008)Kapton® has been blocking part of the aperture since launchHIRDLS team has delivered data to the DAAC using new algorithmOzone, HNO3, aerosols, temperatureCurrently working on H2O, CFC’s, CH4, ClONO2HIRDLS high vertical resolution is revealing structures in the lower stratosphere not seen before…HIRDLSGMI Chemical Model~ 248° Lon
21 MLS Limb sounding microwave radiometer 125 GHz-2.5 THz Instrument has operated since shortly after launchKnown pre-launch problems with amplifier chips has caused loss of one channel; data products recovered from other channelsInstrument electronics slowly deteriorating due to radiation exposureAll data products have been released to the DAACData products include profiles of O3, ClO, HCl, H2O, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, Cloud ice, BrO, HOCl.O3 Sept 1, 2005HCl Sept 1, 2005ClO Sept 1, 2005Vortex edge
22 SO2 over Europe and China OMIUV-Vis hyperspectral imager, nm, 13x24 km footprint at nadir, swath width 2600 kmJoint US, Dutch, Finish Science TeamDirect broadcast capabilityRadiation damage is increasing the dark currentAll data products being delivered to the DAAC, some new products under development. Ozone, Cloud heights, NO2, Aerosols, SO2 have been validated.Sept. 24, 2006SO2 over Europe and ChinaGlobal NO2
23 TESFourier transform spectrometer with nadir and limb modes, µm , 5.3x8.5 km spatial footprintTranslator bearing wear will limit instrument life, currently using nadir mode only to preserve instrument life. TES is predicted to fail ~2010Trop. O3, CO, H2O, T have been validated and are on DAACNew data products under development – HDO, CH3OH, NH3Bejing
24 Aura Summary Spacecraft is in good shape – fuel to 2015 Recovered from formatter anomaly, commands to switch to B side available upon reoccurrenceInstrument statusHIRDLS – chopper stalled – status TBDMLS – working well – showing an accumulation of radiation damage in amplifier circuitsTES – Translator bearing current rising slowly – expect failureOMI – working well -accumulation of radiation damage increasing dark currentHave met Mission Success CriteriaPlatform wide validation program nearly complete.All the instruments have data on the DAAC- many instruments are reprocessing data based on validation results.NRT data available for OMI NO2, O3, AerosolsPublicationsIEEE Special issue on Aura Instruments and Algorithms Published May 2006Aura Validation Special Issue in JGR is coming out now (>63 papers)>100 other publications in the refereed literature
25 NASA’s Earth Science Decadal Survey The US National Research Council recommended 15 new space missions to be done over a 10 year time frame.The launch order was grouped into 3 tiers based on priority, cost, and technology readiness.Missions evolved from chapters that discussed “societal objectives” as opposed to “science questions”, and over 120 responses to requests for information from the community.This resulted in the merging of missions for some traditionally separated scientific fields.4 proposed missions will make measurements applicable to Ozone research and monitoring.
26 Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)
27 CLARREO Characteristics Spectrally resolved nadir instruments in the IR and solar backscatter designed for setting “Climate Benchmarks” as opposed to being used for atmospheric sounding.Stability and simplicity take priority over the complexity needed to properly sound the atmosphere. Accuracy over Precision.Baseline instrumentation include 3 thermal FTS instrument packages with roughly 100 km footprints and 1 cm-1 spectral resolution from 200 to 2000 cm-1.Each is on a separate polar precessing orbit to cover semi-diurnal radiances.To cover spectral range, 1 or 2 FTS spectrometers may be needed.One of the satellites will have a solar backscatter instrument.Both IR and UV will have Ozone bands.All instruments will have on-board NIST traceable calibration sources to understand any instrument drift over time.This is a Tier 1 mission
28 GEOSTATIONARY COASTAL AND AIR POLLUTION EVENTS (GEO-CAPE)
29 GEO-CAPE Characteristics Geosynchronous orbitWill observe most of North and South America and coastal regions.Suite of air quality observing instrumentationCO sensors in near infrared and mid infrared.Tropospheric O3 sensor in UV or potentially near IR.NO2, formaldehyde and aerosols retrieved in UV.All would have footprint sizes of roughly 5 to 8 km.This has strong technical overlap with Sentinel 4.High spatial resolution imagerRoughly 250 m resolution to observe coastal ocean biology activity and “special events” over land.Enough spectral filter bands to properly separate the radiances from the ocean or land from the atmospheric opacity of aerosols and NO2.The knowledge of the atmospheric opacity is required to fully characterize the ocean radiances.This is a Tier 2 mission
31 Characteristics of ACE Low Earth OrbitThe lower the better for the lidars…Scanning aerosol polarimeters (next generation GLORY)Clouds radar imager (next generation CloudSat)Aerosol and cloud lidar (next generation CALIPSO)Global Ocean Color mapperLike GEO-CAPE, ocean color is tied to atmosphere sounders to better determine atm. effects on the ocean leaving radiances.No “direct” Ozone observations, but will see stratospheric aerosols.This is a tier 2 mission
33 GACM Characteristics Low Earth Orbit UV nadir sounder for O3 columns and potential profiling, NO2, formaldehyde, aerosols, BrO, etc.Mid to near IR sounder for potential CO, tropospheric O3, CH4…Scanning microwave limb sounder to get daily global maps of profiles for O3, ClO, HCl, N2O, H2O, etc.This mission is very much a next generation Aura and has many similarities to the ESA Sentinal 5.This is designated as a Tier 3 mission, and the odds are high for a significant gap in profile information of global data sets.
34 Data Gaps from space issues Observations of Ozone related species like ClO, HCl, H2O, N2O, CFCs in the stratosphere may end after Aura with a near certainty that GACM will not overlap (Aura did overlap with UARS).Space observations have many advantages over ground based and spot field campaign observations that are required for understanding the climate coupling with the stratosphere.A “gap filler” set of observations may be required, either by NASA or through a collaboration with a partner country.The Decadal Survey also calls out for 1 or 2 “Venture Class” missions in recognition of this problem in many different Earth Science disciplines.
35 CASS, Chemical, Aerosol and Solar Satellite CASS would provide stratospheric and upper tropospheric composition data in the post-Aura period until the NAS Decadal “Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM)”.NAS Decadal Survey: “.. it is imperative that .. a follow-on tropospheric-stratospheric mission … should be launched into a LEO orbit in the middle of the next decade. (pg 109)”Stratospheric chlorine levels will remain above 1980 levels until 2040CASS fulfills the Congressional Mandate for NASA to monitor the state of the stratospheric ozone layerCASS also provides a better venue for the NPOESS TSIS solar monitoring packageWould not require NPOESS solar pointing platform saving IPO $20MCASS would be a sun-pointing satellite based upon SCISAT in mid-inclination orbit (50-650)CASS PayloadCanadian ACE instrument (flown on SCISAT – provided by CSA)SAGE III (flown on METEOR, copy at LaRC, requires refurbishment)TSIS – Total solar irradiance sensor (TIM and SIM, flown on SORCE, provided by NOAA)CASS ROM cost (including spacecraft, refurbishment of SAGE III, launch and operations) ~$120MTIMSIMACESAGE IIITSISSCISAT