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© D. Wong 2003 1 Indexes JDBC JDBC in J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise Edition)
© D. Wong 2003 2 Indexes An index on an attribute A is a data structure to improve query performance efficiency Reason: not efficient to scan all tuples (for large relations) in order to find the few that meet a given condition E.g. SELECT * FROM Movie WHERE studioName = ‘Disney’ AND year = 1990; Not part of SQL standard
© D. Wong 2003 3 Indexes Typical Syntax To create index CREATE INDEX indexName ON R(A1,…An) E.g. 1.CREATE INDEX YearIndex ON Movie(year); 2.CREATE INDEX KeyIndex ON Movie(title, year); Delete Index DELETE INDEX yearIndex;
© D. Wong 2003 4 Selection of Indexes Index design requires an estimate of the typical mix of queries and other operations on the db Example of good use of indexes: 1.An attribute frequently compared to constant in a where clause of a query 2.Attribute that appear frequently in join operations e.g. SELECT name FROM Movie, MovieExec WHERE title = ‘status’ AND producerC# = cert#; WHERE title = ‘status’ AND producerC# = cert#;
© D. Wong 2003 5 Decision factors Important to strike a balance. Factors: 1.Given attribute A, and index on A will: – Greatly speed up queries with a condition on that attribute – May speed up joins involving A 2.Index make insertion, deletion, and updates more complex and time-consuming
© D. Wong 2003 6 Indexes (continued) Techniques to execute SQL queries are intimately associated with storage structures. Typically, a relation is stored in many disk blocks. An index is an auxiliary structure, perhaps stored in a separate file, that support fast access to the rows of a table. Main cost of a query or modification is I/O: No. of disk blocks to be read into memory and write onto disk
© D. Wong 2003 7 Index Selection Example Given Relation: StarsIn(movieTitle, movieYear, starName) 3 operations to perform: 1.Q1: select movieTitle, movieYear From StarsIn where starName = s; 2.Q2: select starName from StarsIn where movieTitle = t and movieYear = y; 3.I: insert into StarsIn values(t, y, s); where s, t, y are some constants
© D. Wong 2003 8 Example's assumptions 1. Cost for examining 1 disk block = 1 unit 2. StarsIn is stored in 10 disk blocks 3. Average no. of stars in a movie = 3 4. Average no. of movies that a star appeared in = 3 5. Tuples for a given star or movie are likely to be spread over the 10 disk blocks of StarsIn 6. One disk access is needed to read a block of the index every time when the index is used to locate tuples with a given value for the indexd attribute(s)
© D. Wong 2003 9 Example's Estimated Cost of actions Action No Index Star Index Movie Index Both Indexes Q1104104 Q2101044 I2446 Cost of 3 actions 2+8p 1 +8p 2 4+6p 2 4+6p 1 6-2p 1 -2p 2 Star index is an index on StarName, Movie index is an index on MovieTitle and movieYear. The numbers in rows 2-5 of the table are no. of disk accesses for the action. Costs associated with the three actions, as a function of which indexes are selected (Ref. Fig. 6.17 2 nd ed.)
© D. Wong 2003 10 Example's usage scenarios The fraction of the time to do Q1 = p1, Q2 = p2, I=1-p1-p2 Consider: –Case 1: p1 = p2 = 0.1 –Case 2: p1 = p2 = 0.4 –Case 3: p1=0.5, p2=0.1 What is the best index strategy for each case? Create only the index that helps the most frequently used query type (e.g. query about stars => create Star index)
© D. Wong 2003 11 JDBC (Java DataBase Connectivity) An API to the database driver manager Provides call-level interface for the execution of SQL statements from a Java language program Developed by SUN Microsystems An integral part of the Java language Java applications use the JDBC dialect of SQL, independent of the DBMS used Support applications to request information about the schema from the DBMS at run time.
© D. Wong 2003 12 JDBC Interaction with SQL DB 1. Make connection to the database 2. Create SQL statement 3. Execute the SQL statement 4. Result table from the SQL "select" statement is returned as a Java object. JDBC provide methods to access the rows and columns. 5. SQL statements return simple integer results that represent the number of affected rows (e.g. insert) OR
© D. Wong 2003 13 Connecting to a db through JDBC Application Driver 1 Driver 2 Driver 3 DBMS server Driver Manager JDBC Modules
© D. Wong 2003 14 JDBC - java.sql package Defines a collection of interfaces and classes that allow programs to interact with db. Interfaces for primary SQL execution: –Driver: supports data connection creation –Connection: represents connection between a java client and and SQL database server –Statement: includes methods for executing text queries –PreparedStatement: represents a precompiled and stored query –CallableStatement: used to execute SQL stored procedures –ResultlSet: contains the results of a query –ResultSetMetaData: information about a ResultSet, including the attribute names and types
© D. Wong 2003 15 Client-server Architectures User Interface / Application Middleware Application Database Server User and Application tier Middle tier Database Server tier
© D. Wong 2003 16 JDBC in J2EE J2EE – Java 2 Enterprise Edition, a middle layer server Connection to DBMS using JDBC (e.g. Cloudscape, Oracle, MS SQL) J2EE Platform – services and architecture Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) – –Session Beans vs. Entity Beans EJB access to databases using JDBC – –Database connection – –Persistence management (Entity Bean e.g.) – –Transaction management (Session Bean e.g.)
© D. Wong 2003 17 J2EE Services HTTP - enables Web browsers to access servlets and JavaServer Pages TM (JSP) files EJB - allows clients to invoke methods on enterprise beans Authentication - enforces security by requiring users to log in Naming and Directory - allows programs to locate services and components through the Java Naming and Directory Interface TM (JNDI) API
© D. Wong 2003 18 J2EE Architecture Ref. Java TM 2 Enterprise Edition Developer's Guide, Figure 1-2
© D. Wong 2003 19 Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) Server-side Java components Contain the business logic of enterprise application Support database access Transactional Multi-user secure Managed by the EJB container Prohibited from a set of operations
© D. Wong 2003 20 Session Bean vs. Entity Bean Session Bean Entity Bean Purpose Performs a task for a client Represents a business entity object that exists in persistent storage. Shared Access May have one client. May be shared by multiple clients. Persistence Not persistent. Persistent. Entity state remains in a database. Ref. Java TM 2 Enterprise Edition Developer's Guide, Table 1-1
© D. Wong 2003 21 EJB Access to Databases Using JDBC API J2EE uses 1. 1.JDBC 2.0 (java.sql) and 2. 2.JDBC 2.0 Optional package (javax.sql) To make a connection to database in J2EE : 1. 1.Should not hardcode the actual name (URL) of the database in EJB 2. 2.Should refer to the database with a logical name 3. 3.Use a JNDI lookup when obtaining the database connection.
© D. Wong 2003 22 Driver and Data source properties In J2EE configuration file, resource.properties, specify: Driver e.g. 1 Cloudscape that is packaged with Sun’s J2EE jdbcDriver.0.name=COM.cloudscape.core.RmiJdbcDriver e.g. 2 Oracle jdbcDriver.0.name= oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver JDBC URL e.g. 1 Cloudscape jdbcDataSource.0.name=jdbc/Cloudscape jdbcDataSource.0.url=jdbc:cloudscape:rmi:CloudscapeDB;create=true e.g. 2 Oracle jdbcDataSource.0.name=jdbc/Oracle jdbcDataSource.0.url= jdbc:oracle:thin:@bigoh.cis.uab.edu:1521:cs610
© D. Wong 2003 23 Making a connection to database example 1. Specify the logical database name. private String dbName = "java:comp/env/jdbc/AccountDB"; 2. Obtain the DataSource associated with the logical name. InitialContext ic = new InitialContext(); DataSource ds = (DataSource) ic.lookup(dbName); 3. Get the Connection from the DataSource. Connection con = ds.getConnection( username, password );
© D. Wong 2003 24 Specifying JNDI name for deployment Step 1: Enter the code name
© D. Wong 2003 25 Step 2: Map the coded name to the JNDI name
© D. Wong 2003 26 Persistence Management Container-Managed Persistence Entity bean code does not contain database access calls. The EJB container generates the SQL statements. Bean-Managed Persistence Entity bean code contains the database access calls (SQLs) (i.e. you write the code!)
© D. Wong 2003 27 Container Managed example: Product entity bean ProductEJB.java ProductHome.java Product.java ProductClient.java Bean Managed example: Account entity bean AccountEJB.java AccountHome.java Account.java AccountClient.java
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