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I. Establishing a Republic

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1 I. Establishing a Republic
Section 2: The Roman Republic and Empire I. Establishing a Republic Rome was a city-state in the center of Italy, ruled by Etruscan kings and nobles c. 800 B.C.E. In 509 B.C.E., the Romans threw out the Etruscans and set up a republic where they chose their own officials Set up a senate of 300 members, all patricians (landholding upper class)—made laws Senators elected 2 consuls, who served one term only, commanded army and business of gov’t

2 During war, senate chose a dictator (ruler) to control gov’t for 6 months
Cincinnatus—model dictator, organized army over attacking enemy and returned back to farm Plebeians (common people) made up most of Rome, but had no influence on gov’t In 450 B.C.E., the gov’t wrote down laws in 12 tablets (Laws of the Twelve Tables), due to plebeian protests Were allowed tribunes (elect officials) to protect own interests; could veto (block) unfair laws  consuls and senate

3 II. From Republic to Empire
Plebeians gained access to power w/o going to war  this was adapted by the U.S. (senate, veto, checks on power) II. From Republic to Empire By 270 B.C.E., Rome controlled almost all of Italy (Etruscans, Greeks) Punic Wars—Rome and Carthage (North Africa) fought three wars with each other Rome won the first battle Carthage won the second battle by invading Italy; led by Hannibal Romans completely destroyed Carthage and controlled the Mediterranean Sea

4 By 133 B.C.E., Rome extended from Spain to Egypt
Conquests of new lands brought riches and led to problems w/in Roman society Generals , traders, and officials became wealthy, but hurt small farmers and citizens who fought for free in the army Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus tried to create reforms to help the poor Senators did not like this and had Gracchus brothers killed

5 civil war broke out in Rome and Julius Caesar emerged and took charge
Caesar had just finished the conquest of Gaul (France) and returned to Rome and took over the capital and forced the senate to make him dictator He became the absolute ruler of Rome, but put in place many changes to help the poor Caesar was killed by his enemies in the senate, because they feared he was going to make himself king

6 Octavian, Caesar’s grand nephew, came to power; he was given the title Augustus (Exalted One)
Augustus Caesar ended Rome as a republic and began the age of the Roman empire Created a well-trained civil service to enforce laws; opened high level jobs to all; and allowed independent gov’t as long as their allegiance was to Rome Pax Romana—a period of 200 years that Augustus’ gov’t set up, a.k.a. “Roman Peace” Rome’s territory was stretched from the Mesopotamia to Britain (size of U.S.)

7 Emperor Hadrian codified Roman law
During the Pax Romana: military protected the empire trade flowed freely from Africa & Asia People spread ideas and knowledge Emperor Hadrian codified Roman law Emperor Marcus Aurelius wrote Meditations and became a philosopher-king (Plato’s ideal) III. Roman Law The legacy of Rome was the establishment of justice through law, which created stability and unity  borrowed by Europe and Latin America

8 Two Systems: Civil law—rules that applied to citizens Law of nations—rules that applied to people outside of Rome An accused was presumed innocent until proven guilty; and judges interpreted laws and had to be fair By 400s C.E., the Roman empire collapsed and the Byzantine empire took over Emperor Justinian created the Justinian’s Code—the Body of Civil Law based on Roman law

9 By 1100s, Justinian’s Code reached Western Europe and were used by many monarchs
Justinian’s Code is also used in international law today IV. Greco-Roman Civilization Greco-Roman civilization—a blend of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman traditions Philosophy of Stoicism stressed duty Greco-Roman ideas preserved by the Byzantine empire and Muslim scholars

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