Presentation on theme: "Classical Mediterranean Ideas, Institutions, Values: 800 B. C. E. - 476."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Mediterranean Ideas, Institutions, Values: 800 B. C. E. - 476
Classical Mediterranean Source of Western Civilization Loose Concept Classical Heritage (Ancient Greece and Rome) + Barbarian (Germanic) Invasions + Christianity. Best defines Western Europe and the United States Today. Because of recent “success” of Western Civilization, it is a term that stirs controversy
Classical Heritage Ancient Greece Ending of Dark Ages/Age of Homer Emergence of Polis Governmental Forms: aristocracy, monarchy, oligarchy, tyranny, democracy Emergence of Athens and Sparta
Athens 700 B. C. E.—Athens established King and Council of Nobles (Areopagus). 621 B. C. E.—Draco established first Constitution—protected property on pain of death. 594—Solon elected Archon and introduced Democracy and expanded rights of common people—Nobility rescinded these when Solon died.
Athens 2 Commoners chafe under Aristocracy and support Peisitratus, who is a Tyrant, claiming to serve common people. (560-527 B. C. E.) Nobles oust Peisitratus’s sons Cleisthenes introduces a more democratic Constitution in 508 B. C. E. Demes elect council of 500—Demes done geographically, which displaces power of some nobles. Concept of Ostracism introduced.
Sparta Slaveholding society dominated by warrior aristocracy. Government is a military oligarchy All facets of human life regulated by state Spartans make up only 10% of population of polis—they, and no others, have political rights.
Events drive Greek Civilization Persian Wars (490-479) “Hellenes fight better than slaves” Golden Age of Athens under Pericles (460-430 B. C. E.) Peloponnesian War (431-404 B. C. E.)—The Suicide of Greece Philip of Macedon conquers Greece (339 B. C. E.) Hellenic Age (750-323 B. C. E.); Hellenistic Age (323-31 B. C. E.) Greek Cities conquered by Roman Empire.
Features of Greek Civilization Concept of Arete Individualism Architecture (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian) Rational Thought—phenomena have natural causes Philosophy (natura rei)
Greek Philosophy Socrates (470-399 B. C. E.)—eternal truth is knowable; Socratic method. Plato (427-347 B. C. E.)—Theory of Ideas; the Republic; Plato’s cave. Aristotle (384-322 B. C. E.)—Philosophical Realism; syllogism
Rome (753 B. C. E.-476 A. D.) Romans dominated by Etruscans until 509 B. C. E. Source of Rome’s hatred of monarchy. Roman Republic (509 B. C. E.-27 B. C. E.) Republic dominated by struggles between Patricians and Plebians and by expansion. Plebians were needed to serve in army—source of political power. Law of the 12 Tables (449 B. C. E.) “Dura lex, sed lex.” Tribunes of the People—VETO Hortensian Law—287 B. C. E.
End of Roman Republic Punic Wars weaken Plebian position. Murder of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus undermines Roman Constitution. Civil Wars (100 B. C. E.-27 B. C. E.) – optimates struggle with champions of the people. Caesar Augustus wins Civil Wars and effectively ends Republic (27 B. C. E.-14 A. D.)
Roman Expansion and Decline Senate reduced to “town council” Command of Army – “imperator” –is essential. Empire Continues to Expand until Emperor Hadrian (117-138) Civil Wars follow murder of Commodus in 192 Political Order not established until Diocletian (285- 305) Constantine (305-337) centers empire in east Battle of Adrianople (378) Barbarians sack Rome in 410 Odovacar exiles Romulus Agustulus in 476.
Importance of Rome to Western Civ. Institutions—Senate Law—juris prudence—concept of precedence and equity Stability—Pax Romana (27 B. C.-180 A. D.) “Civis Sum Romanum” Latin language Ciceronian Address Emergence of Christianity
Christianity Messianic Judaism Struggles with Macedonians and Romans Jesus of Nazareth Role of Paul Persecution Edit of Toleration, Edict of Milan 395—Xianity is official religion of Empire Emergence of Papacy