Mythical Version: about 800 BC Romulus & Remus Left to die Adopted by she-wolf Raised by shepherd Fought Rome named after Romulus
Historical Version: 1200 BC groups of people begin invading around Mediterranean. One group, Latins, settle on Palatine - farmers Around 800 BC Etruscans settle in Etruria Feared as Pirates, admired as traders – more advanced culture By 600 BC Etruscans dominated northern Italy, including the Palatine Etruscans taught Latins things like arch building, gods in human form, an alphabet, slave fights at funerals, and the triumph. Etruscans ruled Latins for more than 200 years – Latins had no rights 509 BC Latins overthrew Etruscan king (Rex) Latins were afraid Etruscans would come back, so crossed Tiber and conquered several other Etruscan cities. To protect their area, they either conquered or formed alliances with those around them. By 275 BC Rome ruled the peninsula.
Expansion of the Republic Social order in the Republic: –Patrician –Equestrian –Plebians
Expansion By 264 BC Romans in Southern Italy and in contact with Carthage Carthage controlled N. Africa, Spain, some of Sicily. Romans felt threatened by Carthaginians Punic wars started in Sicily Rome builds a navy – but with a twist 241 BC Carthage agrees to leave Sicily 218 BC – Hannibal attacks via Spain & Gaul Roams Italy for 15 years Romans attack Carthage to get Hannibal out of Italy 201 BC Carthage agrees to give Spain to Rome & pay 149 BC Romans attack Carthage because becoming a threat 146 BC Carthage destroyed completely 146 BC Romans attack and burn Corinth to ground. Romans rule Greece, Syria, Macedonia – the Mediterranean region.
Final Years of the Republic By 135 BC problem – gap between rich & poor Gracchi bros. – land & wheat to poor & hungry Senate had them killed Gen. Gaius Marius – power to army Gen. Lucius Cornelius Sulla – power to Senate 79BC – Sulla retires The first triumvirate – Crassus, Pompey & Caesar 58 BC Caesar governor of Gaul – expanded empire into Britain 50 BC Senate orders him to disban Caesar’s reaction – Pompey’s reaction Caesar – good or bad? March 15, 44BC
The Empire Another triumvirate – Octavian, Antony, & Lepidus Antony & Cleopatra in Egypt Octavian wanted one Empire 31 BC Octavian v. Antony End of Antony & Cleopatra Octavian becomes Augustus Augustus & Pax Romana
After Augustus 5 good emperors – AD 96 – AD 186 Of the 5 – 3 outstanding, Hadrian, Trajan & Marcus Aurelius M. Aurelius – last of the good, dies in AD 186 Civil War – Army v. Senate – Emperors are puppets (26 in 50 yrs) AD 284 Diocletian – wanted peace, established successor & had himself proclaimed a god. Divided Rome in ½ After his retirement, civil war again AD 312 Constantine – moved capital to Constantinople, religious freedom
Why do some say the gladiatorial games are a sign of the decline of Rome?