2 The President’s RolesChief of State- the ceremonial head of the U.S. Government.Chief Executive- Vested with the executive power of the United States.Chief administrator of the Federal Government- Administers the federal bureaucracy.Chief diplomat- The main architect of American foreign policy.Commander in Chief- Commands the nation’s armed forces.
3 The President’s RolesChief legislator- Sets the shape of public policy.Chief of party- The leader of the political party in power.Chief citizen- The representative of all the people.* Each role is played simultaneously and is inseparable from the others.
4 Presidential Qualifications (formal) Must be 35 years old.Must be a natural-born U.S. citizen.Must have lived in the United States for at least 14 years.
5 Presidential Qualifications (informal) Most Presidents have been in their 50s when they entered the White House.John F. Kennedy was the youngest at age 43 to be elected President. Theodore Roosevelt succeeded to the office at the age of 42 after President William McKinley was assassinated. Ronald Regan was elected at 69 and left office at 77 making him the oldest person to ever hold the Presidency.All Presidents have been males. President Barack Obama is the first African-American President. Most Presidents have been Christian Protestants.
6 The Federal Bureaucracy A bureaucracy is an administrative organization structured as a hierarchy.
7 Three Purposes of Federal Agencies To perform essential government functions. Example: The Department of Defense supervises the military.To meet the changing needs of the country. Example: The Department of the Interior was created to move Native Americans to reservations and control the West.To serve particular groups of people. Example: The Department of Agriculture addresses agricultural interests.
8 Four Types of Federal Agencies Cabinet-level departments: 15 major subdivisions represented in the president’s cabinet. Example: The Department of Homeland SecurityIndependent agencies: Government organizations with narrower areas of control that vary in size and in independence from the president and Congress. Example: Small Business Administration
9 Four Types of Federal Agencies Independent regulatory boards and commissions: Government organizations that make regulations for industries, businesses, and parts of the economy. Example: Food and Drug AdministrationGovernment corporations: Independent agencies that are largely free of congressional and presidential influence; provide goods and services in ways that would not be profitable for private businesses. Example: U.S. Postal Service
11 Cabinet-Level Departments of the U.S. Government AgricultureCommerceDefenseEducationEnergyHealth and Human ServicesHomeland Security
12 Cabinet-Level Departments of the U.S. Government Housing and Urban DevelopmentInteriorJusticeLaborStateTransportationTreasuryVeterans Affairs
13 The Bureaucracy, Congress, and the Iron Triangle An iron triangle is the strong relationship among three groups:Congressional committees and subcommitteesInterest groupsBureaucratic agenciesThese three groups tend to form policy that benefits their shared interests rather than those of the public.As a result, committees and subcommittees influence the bureaucracy more than Congress does as a whole.
15 Executive Office of the President The cabinet is not always loyal to the president.As a result, the president often looks to the Executive Office of the President (EOP) for advice.The EOP is a group of agencies that develops and implements the policies of the president.Sometimes presidents use the EOP to bypass the bureaucracy.Example: President Nixon had National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger carry out diplomatic work usually handled by the State Department.
16 Executive Office of the President The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) helps the president prepare and implement the federal budget.The OMB ensures that the budget reflects the president’s agenda and approves other agencies’ regulations.The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) predicts the economy’s future and suggests appropriate policies.The National Security Council (NSC) gives the president daily updates about events around the world.
17 Tools used to carry out United States Foreign Policy. DiplomacyEconomic- We give economic aid to countries in need for diplomatic purposes. We may loan money to shore up economies or to help nations rebuild after war or natural disasters. Ex. The Marshall PlanMilitary- The United States will use military aid to help allies or to expand our own interest around the world. Ex. LibyaHumanitarian Aid- The United States gives humanitarian aid to people in need (not just countries to distribute).
18 Tools used to carry out United States Foreign Policy. Treaties- The United States signs treaties with other countries for a variety of reasons. Ex. To end wars or conflicts, to establish trade, to form an alliance. Etc.Sanctions- The United States uses sanctions to punish countries who adopt policies contrary to U.S. interests. Sanctions can be in the form of cutting off economic aid, trade embargoes, etc. Ex. The United States issued a trade embargo with Cuba after the communist takeover led by Fidel Castro.Military Intervention- The United States will use the military to intervene to protect its own interest. Ex. Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan, Panama, Vietnam, etc.