Presentation on theme: "What is matter? Matter is anything that occupies space and has a mass."— Presentation transcript:
1 What is matter? Matter is anything that occupies space and has a mass. Everything you can see, touch, smell or taste in your room is made of matter.Even though it appears to be smooth and continuous, matter is actually composed of a lot of tiny little pieces called atoms.
2 Atoms and MoleculesAtoms are the tiny particles that make up all matter.In most substances, the atoms are joined together in units called molecules and compounds.
3 Different States of Matter Matter can be solids, liquids, gases or plasma.Changing matter from one state to another is called “change in state”. Melting, boiling and freezing are all examples of changes in state.The atoms, molecules or compounds have different structures in solids, liquids and gases which leads to different properties.
5 SolidsThe particles in a solid are packed close together and are fixed in positionthough they may vibrate.The close packing of the particles results in solids being incompressible.The inability of the particles to move around results in solids retaining their shape and volume when placed in a new container; and prevents the particles from flowing.
6 LiquidsThe particles in a liquid are closely packed, but they have some ability to move around.The close packing results in liquids being incompressible.But, the ability of the particles to move allows liquids to take the shape of their container and to flow – however they don’t have enough freedom to escape and expand to fill the container.
7 GasesIn the gas state, the particles have complete freedom from each other.The particles are constantly flying around, bumping into each other and the container.In the gas state, there is a lot of empty space between the particleson average.Because there is a lot of empty space, the particles can be squeezed closer together – therefore gases are compressible.Because the particles are not held in close contact and are moving freely, gases expand to fill and take the shape of their container, and will flow.
8 States of Matter H2O State Solid Gas Liquid ‘Water’ Shape Volume Particle MovementCompressibilitySolidIceConstantFixed - limited motionNoGasSteamVariableRandom - each particle can go anywhereYesLiquidWaterVariableConstantRandom, but only under the surfaceNo
9 Chemical and Physical Properties Physical properties: characteristics that are measured or observed that identify a substance without changing the chemical composition of the substanceExamples: melting, boiling, color, smell, taste, densityChemical properties: Those properties a substance displays only through changing its composition.Comparison:The characteristic odor of gasoline is a physical property-gasoline does not change its composition when it exhibits its odor. On the other hand, the flammability of gasoline is a chemical property-gasoline does change its composition when it burns.
10 Some Physical Properties Some Chemical Properties
11 Chemical and Physical Changes Physical change occurs when the appearance of a substance changes but the chemical composition of the substance remains the same. Melting, freezing and boiling of a substance are a few examples.The kinds of molecules don’t change.Chemical changes result in a substance changing into a new substance(s) with different composition(s) and different physical properties. A chemical reaction results in chemical changes.The new substances have different molecules than the original substances.You will observe different physical properties because the newsubstances have their own physical properties.
12 Matter can be pure or a mixture Pure matter has a definite composition that does not change.Elements and compounds represent pure substances.Most matter exists as a mixture that can be separated into pure substances using physical methods: NaCl dissolved in water is an example.Pure SubstanceConstant CompositionHomogeneousMixtureVariable CompositionHomogeneous orHeterogeneousMatter
13 Pure Substances vs. Mixtures all samples have the same physical and chemical properties2) constant composition = all samples have the same pieces in the same percentages3) homogeneous4) separate into components based on chemical properties5) temperature usually stays constant while melting or boilingMixturesdifferent samples may show different properties2) variable composition = samples made with the same pure substances may have different percentages3) homogeneous or heterogeneous4) separate into components based on physical properties5) temperature changes while melting or boiling because composition changes
14 Separation of Mixtures Separate mixtures based on different physical properties of the componentsPhysical changeCentrifugation &DecantingDensityEvaporationVolatilityChromatographyAdherence to a SurfaceFiltrationState of Matter (solid/liquid/gas)DistillationBoiling PointTechniqueDifferent Physical Property
15 How are elements different from compounds? Smallest piece of an element is called an atom.Smallest piece of a compound is called a molecule.Molecules are made of atoms.All molecules of a compound are identical and can exist as individual discrete units such as gas molecules or liquid molecules. Solids that are in a fixed composition are not usually referred to as molecules.Each molecule has the same number and type of atoms.
16 Classifying Pure Substances as Elements and Compounds Substances which can not be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions are called elements.Most substances are chemical combinations of elements. These are called compounds.Compounds can be broken down into elementsProperties of the compound are not related to the properties of the elements that compose it