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Mixtures and Solutions

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Presentation on theme: "Mixtures and Solutions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mixtures and Solutions

2 Mixtures and Solutions
A mixture is a combination of two or more components that are NOT chemically combined, and retain their identities. Mixtures can be physically separated. The identities of the substances DO NOT change. A homogeneous mixture is also called a solution.

3 Mixtures When a mixture’s components are easily recognizable, such as pizza, it is called a heterogeneous mixture. In a homogeneous mixture such as chocolate milk, the component particles cannot be distinguished, even though they still retain their original properties.

4 Mixtures Common Techniques for Separating Mixtures
Distillation – separates a mixture based on boiling points of the component. Examples : saltwater crude oil into gasoline and kerosene Magnet – separates iron from other objects. Centrifuge – spins and separates according to densities.

5 Solutions A mixture that appears to be a single substance but is composed of particles of two or more substances that are distributed evenly amongst each other. A solution may be liquid, gaseous, or solid. Examples of solutions Liquid - seawater Gas - air Solid - alloys

6 Solutions Dissolving – The process in which
particles of substances separate and spread evenly amongst each other. Solute – substance that is dissolved. A solute is soluble, or able to dissolve. A substance that is insoluble is unable to dissolve, forms a mixture that is not homogeneous, and therefore NOT a solution. Solvent – substance in which solute is dissolved.

7 Solubility The solubility of a solute is the amount of solute needed to make a saturated solution using a given amount of solvent at a certain temperature. Solubility is usually expressed in grams of solute per 100 ml of solvent (g/100ml) Three (3) methods that affect solubility Mixing, stirring, or shaking Heating Crushing or grinding

8 Suspension A mixture in which particles of
a material are dispersed through- out a liquid or gas but are large enough that they settle out. Particles are insoluble, so they DO NOT dissolve in the liquid or gas. Particles can be separated using a filter. Examples: Salad dressing Medicines that say “shake well before use”

9 Colloids A mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out. Made up of solids, liquids and gases. Examples : Mayonnaise Stick deodorant milk

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