Presentation on theme: "ILLUSTRATION 13-1 PARTNERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS"— Presentation transcript:
1 ILLUSTRATION 13-1 PARTNERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS Association of IndividualsMutual AgencyCo-ownership of PropertyLimited LifePartnership Form of Business OrganizationUnlimited Liability
2 ILLUSTRATION 13-2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF A PARTNERSHIP 9
3 FORMING A PARTNERSHIPEach partner’s initial investment in a partnership should be recorded at the fair market value of the assets at the date of their transfer to the partnership.The values assigned must be agreed to by all of the partners.After the partnership has been formed, the accounting is similar to accounting for transactions of any other type of business organization.Upon the formation of a partnership, this personal computer should be recorded at its FMV of $2,500 instead of net book value.11
4 DIVIDING NET INCOME OR NET LOSS Partnership net income or net loss is shared equally unless the partnership contract specifically indicates otherwise.The same basis of division usually applies to both net income and net loss, and is called the income ratio or the profit and loss ratio.A partner’s share of net income or net loss is recognized in the accounts through closing entries.14
5 CLOSING ENTRIES Four closing entries are required for a partnership: 1. Debit each revenue account for its balance and credit Income Summary for total revenues.2. Debit Income Summary for total expenses and credit each expense account for its balance.3. Debit (credit) Income Summary for its balance and credit (debit) each partner’s capital account for his or her share of net income (net loss).4. Debit each partner’s capital account for the balance in that partner's drawing account and credit each partner’s drawing account for the same amount.
6 INCOME RATIOSThe partnership agreement should specify the basis for sharing net income or net loss. The following are typical of the ratios that may be used:1. A fixed ratio, expressed as a proportion (2:1), a percentage (67% and 33%), or a fraction (2/3 and 1/3).2. A ratio based on either capital balances at the beginning of the year or on average capital balances during the year.3. Salaries to partners and the remainder in a fixed ratio.4. Interest on partners’ capital balances and the remainder in a fixed ratio.5. Salaries to partners, interest on partners’ capital balances, and the remainder in a fixed ratio.
7 ILLUSTRATION 13-4 INCOME STATEMENT WITH DIVISION OF NET INCOME Sara King and Ray Lee are partners in the Kingslee Company. The partnership agreement provides for 1) salary allowances of $8,400 for Sara and $6,000 for Ray, 2) interest allowances of 10% on capital balances at the beginning of the year, and 3) the remaining income to be split equally. Beginning Capital balances were King $28,000 and Lee $24,000. The division of the 2003 partnership income of $22,000 is as follows:King Lee TotalTotal net income $22,000Based on salary allowanceBased on interest allowance:King - ($28,000 X 10%)Lee - ($24,000 X 10%)TotalRemaining incomeRemainder shared equallyDivision of net income$8, $6,000 (14,400)2,8002,400(5,200)1, , (2,400)$12, $ 9,600 $22,0002,40018
8 ILLUSTRATION 13-6 PARTNER’S CAPITAL STATEMENT The equity statement for a partnership is called the statement of partners' capital. It’s function is to explain the changes 1) in each partner’s capital account and 2) in total partnership capital during the year.19
9 ILLUSTRATION 13-7 PARTNER’S EQUITY SECTION OF A PARTNERSHIP BALANCE SHEET The statement of partners’ equity is prepared from the income statement and the partners’ capital and drawings accounts. The balance sheet for a partnership is the same as for a proprietorship except in the equity section. The capital balances of the partners are shown in the balance sheet.20
10 ADMISSION OF A PARTNERThe admission of a new partner results in the legal dissolution of the existing partnership and the beginning of a new partnership.To recognize economic effects, it is necessary only to open a capital account for each new partner.A new partner may be admitted either by:1. Purchasing the interest of one or more existing partners, or2. Investing assets in the partnership.
11 PROCEDURES IN ADDING PARTNERS Admission of Partner through:Partnership AssetsI. Purchase of a Partner’s InterestThe admission of a partner by purchase of an interest in the firm is a personal transaction between one or more existing partners and the new partner. The price paid is negotiated and determined by the individuals involved; it may be equal to or different from the capital equity acquired. Any money or other consideration exchanged is the personal property of the participants and not the property of the partnership.
12 PROCEDURES IN ADDING PARTNERS When a partner is admitted by investment, both the total net assets and the total partnership capital change. When the new partner’s investment differs from the capital equity acquired, the difference is considered a bonus either to: 1) the existing (old) partners or 2) the new partner.II. Investment of Assets in PartnershipHelloPartnership Assets
13 BONUS TO OLD PARTNERSThe procedure for determining the new partner’s capital credit and the bonus to the old partners is as follows:1. Determine the total capital of the new partnership by adding the new partner’s investment to the total capital of the old partnership.2. Determine the new partner’s capital credit by multiplying the total capital of the new partnership by the new partner’s ownership interest.3. Determine the amount of bonus by subtracting the new partner’s capital credit from the new partner’s investment.4. Allocate the bonus to the old partners on the basis of their income ratios.25
14 BONUS TO NEW PARTNERThe procedure for determining the new partner’s capital credit and the bonus to the new partner is as follows:1. Determine the total capital of the new partnership by adding the new partner’s investment to the total capital of the old partnership.2. Determine the new partner’s capital credit by multiplying the total capital of the new partnership by the new partner’s ownership interest.3. Determine the amount of bonus by subtracting the new partner’s investment from the new partner’s capital credit.4. Allocate the bonus from the old partners on the basis of their income ratios.25
15 WITHDRAWAL OF A PARTNER A partner may withdraw from a partnership voluntarily by selling his or her equity in the firm or involuntarily by reaching a mandatory retirement age or by dying.The withdrawal of a partner may be accomplished by1. payment from remaining partners’ personal assets or2. payment from partnership assets.27
16 PAYMENT FROM PARTNERS’ PERSONAL ASSETS The withdrawal of a partner when payment is made from partners’ personal assets is the direct opposite of admitting a new partner who purchases a partner’s interest.Withdrawal by payment from partners’ personal assets is a personal transaction between the partners.ByePartnership Assets28
17 BONUS TO RETIRING PARTNER A bonus may be paid to a retiring partner when:1. the fair market value of partnership assets is greater than their book value,2. there is unrecorded goodwill resulting from the partnership’s superior earnings record, or3. the remaining partners are anxious to remove the partner from the firm.BONUS30
18 BONUS TO RETIRING PARTNER The bonus is deducted from the remaining partners’ capital balances on the basis of their income ratios at the time of the withdrawal.The procedure for determining the bonus to the retiring partner and the allocation of the bonus to the remaining partners is:1. Determine the amount of the bonus by subtracting the retiring partner’s capital balance from the cash paid by the partnership.2. Allocate the bonus to the remaining partners on the basis of their income ratios.
19 BONUS TO REMAINING PARTNERS The retiring partner may pay a bonus to the remaining partners when:1. recorded assets are overvalued,2. the partnership has a poor earnings record, or3. the partner is anxious to leave the partnership.BONUS31
20 BONUS TO REMAINING PARTNERS The bonus is added to the remaining partners’ capital balances on the basis of their income ratios at the time of the withdrawal.The procedure for determining the bonus to the remaining partners is:1. Determine the amount of the bonus by subtracting the retiring partner’s capital balance from the cash paid by the partnership.2. Allocate the bonus to the remaining partners on the basis of their income ratios.
21 LIQUIDATION OF A PARTNERSHIP The liquidation of a partnership terminates the business.To liquidate a partnership, follow these steps:1. Sell noncash assets for cash and recognize any gain or loss on realization.2. Allocate any gain or loss on realization to the partners based on their income ratios.3. Pay partnership liabilities in cash.4. Distribute remaining cash to partners based on their capital balances.32
22 LIQUIDATION OF PARTNERSHIP No capital deficiencyCapital deficiencyPartner with deficiency pays partnershipPartners with credit capital balances absorb deficiency in income sharing proportion