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**Section 7.1 The STANDARD NORMAL CURVE**

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Section 7.1 The STANDARD NORMAL CURVE

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Section Objectives Use a probability density curve to describe a population Use a normal curve to describe a normal population Find areas under the standard normal curve Find z-scores corresponding to areas under the normal curve Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Objective 1 Use a probability density curve to describe a population**

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Probability Density Curve**

The following graph presents a relative frequency histogram for the particulate emissions of a sample of 65 vehicles. If we had information on the entire population, containing millions of vehicles, we could make the rectangles extremely narrow. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Probability Density Curve**

The histogram would then look smooth and could be approximated by a curve. Since the amount of emissions is a continuous variable, the curve used to describe the distribution of this variable is called the probability density curve of the random variable. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Probability Density Curve**

The area under a probability density curve tells us what proportion of the population falls between any two values a and b. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Area under Probability Density Curve**

The area under a probability density curve between any two values a and b has two interpretations: It represents the proportion of the population whose values are between a and b. It represents the probability that a randomly selected value from the population will be between a and b. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Facts About the Probability Density Curve**

The region above a single point has zero width. Therefore, if X is a continuous random variable, P(X = a) = 0 for any number a. If X is a continuous random variable, then P(a < X < b) = P(a ≤ X ≤ b) for any number a and b. For any probability density curve, the area under the entire curve is 1, because this area represents the entire population. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.1 The diagram below is a probability density curve for a population. a) What proportion of the population is between 4 and 6? Solution: The proportion of the population between 4 and 6 is equal to the area under the curve between 4 and 6, which is 0.16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.1 The diagram below is a probability density curve for a population. b) If a value is chosen at random from this population, what is the probability that it will be between 4 and 6? Solution: The probability that a randomly chosen value is between 4 and 6 is equal to the area under the curve between 4 and 6, which is 0.16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.1 The diagram below is a probability density curve for a population. c) What proportion of the population is not between 4 and 6? Solution: The area under the entire curve is equal to 1. Therefore, the proportion that is not between 4 and 6 is equal to 1 – 0.16 = 0.84. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.1 The diagram below is a probability density curve for a population. d) If a value is chosen at random from this population, what is the probability that it is not between 4 and 6? Solution: The probability that a randomly chosen value is not between 4 and 6 is equal to the area under the curve that is not between 4 and 6, which is 0.84. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Objective 2 Use a normal curve to describe a normal population**

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Normal Curves Probability density curves comes in many varieties, depending on the characteristics of the populations they represent. Many important statistical procedures can be carried out using only one type of probability density curve, called a normal curve. A population that is represented by a normal curve is said to be normally distributed, or to have a normal distribution. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Examples of Normal Curves**

The population mean (or mode) determines the location of the peak. The population standard deviation measures the spread of the population. Therefore, the normal curve is wide and flat when the population standard deviation is large, and tall and narrow when the population standard deviation is small. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Properties of Normal Distributions**

Normal distributions have one mode. Normal distributions are symmetric around the mode. The mean and median of a normal distribution are both equal to the mode. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Properties of Normal Distributions**

The normal distribution follows the Empirical Rule: Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Objective 3 Find areas under the standard normal curve**

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Standard Normal Curve A normal distribution can have any mean and any positive standard deviation. The distribution with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1 is known as the standard normal distribution. The probability density function for the standard normal distribution is called the standard normal curve. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Z-scores When finding an area under the standard normal curve, we use the letter z to indicate a value on the horizontal axis beneath the curve. We refer to such a value as a z-score. Since the mean of the standard normal distribution is 0: The mean has a z-score of 0. Points on the horizontal axis to the left of the mean have negative z-scores. Points to the right of the mean have positive z-scores. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Using a Table to Find Areas**

Table A.2 may be used to find the area to the left of a given z-score. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Finding Areas with the TI-84 PLUS**

The normalcdf command is used to find areas under a normal curve. Four numbers must be used as the input. The first entry is the lower bound of the area. The second entry is the upper bound of the area. The last two entries are the mean and standard deviation. This command is accessed by pressing 2nd, Vars. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.2 (Table) Find the area to the left of z = Solution: Step 1: Sketch a normal curve, label the point z = 1.26, and shade in the area to the left of it. Step 2: Consult Table A.2. To look up z = 1.26, find the row containing 1.2 and the column containing The value in the intersection of the row and column is This is the area to the left of z = 1.26. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.2 (TI-84) Find the area to the left of z = Solution: Note the there is no lower endpoint, therefore we use -1E99 which represents negative 1 followed by 99 zeroes. We select the normalcdf command and enter -1E99 as the lower endpoint, 1.26 as the upper endpoint, 0 as the mean and 1 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.3 (Table) Find the area to the right of z = – Solution: Step 1: Sketch a normal curve, label the point z = – 0.58, and shade in the area to the right of it. Step 2: Consult Table A.2. To look up z = – 0.5 and the column containing The value in the intersection of the row and column is This is the area to the left of z = – 0.58. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.3 (Table) Solution (continued): Because the total area under the curve is 1 and table A.2 gives the area to the left of z, we subtract this area from 1: Area to the right of z = – 0.58 = 1 – area to the left of z = – 0.58 = 1 – = Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.3 (TI-84) Find the area to the right of z = – Solution: Note the there is no upper endpoint, therefore we use 1E99 which represents the large number 1 followed by 99 zeroes. We select the normalcdf command and enter –0.58 as the lower endpoint, 1E99 as the upper endpoint, 0 as the mean and 1 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.4 (Table) Find the area between z = –1.45 and z = Solution: Step 1: Sketch a normal curve, label the points z = –1.45 and z = 0.42, and in the area between them. Step 2: Use Table A.2 to find the areas to the left of z = –1.45 and to the left of z = The area to the left of z = –1.45 is and the area to the left of z = 0.42 is Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.4 (Table) Solution (continued): Step 3: Subtract the smaller area from the larger area to find the area between the two z-scores: Area between z = –1.45 and z = 0.42 = (Area left of z = –1.45) – (Area left of z = 0.42) = – = Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.4 (TI-84) Find the area between z = –1.45 and z = Solution: We select the normalcdf command and enter –1.45 as the lower endpoint, 0.42 as the upper endpoint, 0 as the mean and 1 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Objective 4 Find z-scores corresponding to areas under the normal curve Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Z-scores From Areas We have been finding areas under the normal curve from given z-scores. Many problems require us to go in the reverse direction. That is, if we are given an area, we need to find the z-score that corresponds to that area under the standard normal curve. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.7 (Table) Find the z-score that has an area of 0.26 to its left. Solution: Step 1: Sketch a normal curve and shade in the given area. Step 2: Look through the body of Table A.2 to find the area closest to This value is , which correspond to the z-score z = –0.64. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Z-scores From Areas on the TI-84 PLUS**

The invNorm command in the TI-84 PLUS Calculator returns the z-score with a given area to its left. This command takes three values as its input. The first value is the area to the left, the second and third values are the mean and standard deviation. This command is accessed by pressing 2nd, Vars. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.7 (TI-84) Find the z-score that has an area of 0.26 to its left. Solution: We select the invNorm command and enter 0.26 as the area to the left, 0 as the mean, and 1 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.9 (Table) Find the z-score that has an area of 0.68 to its right. Solution: Step 1: Sketch a normal curve and shade in the given area. Step 2: Determine the area to the left of the z-score. Since the area to the right is 0.68, the area to the left is 1 – 0.68 = Step 3: Look through the body of Table A.2 to find the area closest to This value is , which correspond to the z-score z = –0.47. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.9 (TI-84) Find the z-score that has an area of 0.68 to its right. Solution: Since the area to the right is 0.68, the area to the left is 1 – 0.68 = We use the invNorm command with 0.32 as the area to the left, 0 as the mean, and 1 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.11 (Table) Find the z-scores that bound the middle 95% of the area under the standard normal curve. Solution: Step 1: Sketch a normal curve and shade in the given area. Label the z-score on the left z1 and the z-score on the right z2. Step 2: Find the area to the left of z1. Since the area in the middle is 0.95, the area in the two tails combined is Half of that area, which is 0.025, is to the left of z1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.11 (Table) Solution (continued): Step 3: In Table A.2, an area of corresponds to z = –1.96. Therefore, z1 = –1.96. Step 4: Find the area to the left of z2 , which is In Table A.2, an area of corresponds to z = This value could also have been found by symmetry. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.11 (TI-84) Find the z-scores that bound the middle 95% of the area under the standard normal curve. Solution: We first sketch a normal curve and shade in the given area. Label the z-score on the left z1 and the z-score on the right z2. Now, since the area in the middle is 0.95, the area in the two tails combined is Half of that area, which is 0.025, is to the left of z1. We use the invNorm command with as the area to the left, 0 as the mean, and 1 as the standard deviation. We find that z1 = –1.96. By symmetry, z2 = 1.96. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**The Notation zα Definition**

Let α be any number between 0 and 1, the notation zα refers to the z-score with an area of α to its right. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.12 (Table) Find z0.20 Solution: z0.20 is the z-score that has an area of 0.20 to its right. Therefore, the area to the left is 1 – 0.20 = Using Table A.2, the closest value to 0.80 is , which correspond to z = Therefore, z0.20 = 0.84 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.12 (TI-84) Find z0.20 Solution: z0.20 is the z-score that has an area of 0.20 to its right. Therefore, the area to the left is 1 – 0.20 = Using the invNorm command with 0.80 as the area to the left, 0 as the mean, and 1 as the standard deviation, we find that z0.20= Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Do You Know… How to use a probability density curve to describe a population? How to use a normal curve to describe a normal population? How to find areas under the standard normal curve? How to find z-scores corresponding to areas under the normal curve? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Section 7.2 applications of the normal distribution**

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Section 7.2 applications of the normal distribution

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Section Objectives Convert values from a normal distribution to z-scores Find areas under a normal curve Find the value from a normal distribution corresponding to a given proportion Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Objective 1 Convert values from a normal distribution to z-scores**

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**Definition: z-score of x**

Let x be a value from a normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ. We can convert x to a z-score by using a method known as standardization. The z-score of x is Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Definition: z-score of x**

Properties of the z-score The z-score follows a standard normal distribution. Values below the mean have negative z-scores, and values above the mean have positive z-scores. The z-score tells how many standard deviations the original value is above or below the mean. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.14 Heights in a certain population of women follow a normal distribution with mean µ = 64 inches and standard deviation σ = 3 inches. a. A randomly selected woman has a height of x = 67 inches. Find and interpret the z-score of this value. Solution: The z-score for x = 67 is z = (67–µ)/σ = (67–64)/3 = Because the z-score is positive, we interpret this by saying that a height of 67 inches is 1 standard deviation above the mean height of 64 inches. b. Another randomly selected woman has a height of x = 63 inches. Find and interpret the z-score of this value. Solution: The z-score for x = 63 is z = (63–µ)/σ = (63–64)/3 = –0.33. Because the z-score is negative, we interpret this by saying that a height of 63 inches is 0.33 standard deviation below the mean height of 64 inches. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Objective 2 Find areas under a normal curve**

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**Finding an Area Under a Normal Curve Using Tables**

When using tables to compute areas, we first standardize to z-scores, then proceed with the methods from the last section. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.15 (Tables) A study reported that the length of pregnancy from conception to birth is approximately normally distributed with mean µ = 272 days and standard deviation σ = 9 days. What proportion of pregnancies last longer than 280 days? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.15 (Tables) Step 1: Find the z-score for x = 280. The z-score for 280 is Step 2: Sketch a normal curve, label the mean, x-value, and z-score, and shade in the area to be found. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.15 (Tables) Step 3: Since we are interested in the proportion of pregnancies lasting longer than 280 days, find the area to the right of z = Using Table A.2, we find the area to the left of z = 0.89 to be The are to the right is therefore 1 – = We conclude that the proportion of pregnancies that last longer than 280 days is Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.15 (TI-84) A study reported that the length of pregnancy from conception to birth is approximately normally distributed with mean µ = 272 days and standard deviation σ = 9 days. What proportion of pregnancies last longer than 280 days? Solution: We use the normalcdf command with 280 as the lower endpoint, 1E99 as the upper endpoint, 272 as the mean, and 9 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (Tables) The length of a pregnancy from conception to birth approximately normally distributed with mean µ = 272 days and standard deviation σ = 9 days. A pregnancy is considered full-term if it lasts between 252 days and 298 days. What proportion of pregnancies are full-term? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (Tables) Step 1: Find the z-score for x = 252 and x = 298. z-score for x = 252: z-score for x = 298: Step 2: Sketch a normal curve, label the mean, the x-values, and the z-scores, and shade in the area to be found. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (Tables) Step 3: Using Table A.2, we find that the area to the left of z = 2.89 is and the area to the left of z = –2.22 is The area between z = − 2.22 and z = 2.89 is therefore – = The proportion of pregnancies that are full-term, between 252 days and 298 days, is Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (TI-84) The length of a pregnancy from conception to birth approximately normally distributed with mean µ = 272 days and standard deviation σ = 9 days. A pregnancy is considered full-term if it lasts between 252 days and 298 days. What proportion of pregnancies are full-term? Solution: We use the normalcdf command with 252 as the lower endpoint, 298 as the upper endpoint, 272 as the mean, and 9 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (Tables) The length of a pregnancy from conception to birth approximately normally distributed with mean µ = 272 days and standard deviation σ = 9 days. A pregnancy is considered full-term if it lasts between 252 days and 298 days. What proportion of pregnancies are full-term? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (Tables) Step 1: Find the z-score for x = 252 and x = 298. z-score for x = 252: z-score for x = 298: Step 2: Sketch a normal curve, label the mean, the x-values, and the z-scores, and shade in the area to be found. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (Tables) Step 3: Using Table A.2, we find that the area to the left of z = 2.89 is and the area to the left of z = –2.22 is The area between z = − 2.22 and z = 2.89 is therefore – = The proportion of pregnancies that are full-term, between 252 days and 298 days, is Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.17 (TI-84) The length of a pregnancy from conception to birth approximately normally distributed with mean µ = 272 days and standard deviation σ = 9 days. A pregnancy is considered full-term if it lasts between 252 days and 298 days. What proportion of pregnancies are full-term? Solution: We use the normalcdf command with 252 as the lower endpoint, 298 as the upper endpoint, 272 as the mean, and 9 as the standard deviation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Find the Value from a Normal Distribution with a Given Proportion**

Suppose we want to find the value from a normal distribution that has a given proportion of the population above or below it. The method for doing this is the reverse of the previous method where we found a proportion for a given value. In other words, we want to find the value from the distribution that has a given z-score. Therefore, we will solve z = (x – µ)/σ for x. This produces x = µ + zσ. The value of x that corresponds to a given z-score is given by x = µ + zσ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.18 Heights in a group of men are normally distributed with mean µ= 69 inches and standard deviation σ = 3 inches. a. Find the height whose z-score is 1. Interpret the result. Solution: We want the height that is equal to the mean plus one standard deviation. Therefore, x = µ + zσ = 69 + (1)(3) = 72 We interpret this by saying that a man 72 inches tall has a height one standard deviation above the mean. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.18 Heights in a group of men are normally distributed with mean µ= 69 inches and standard deviation σ = 3 inches. b. Find the height whose z-score is – 2.0. Interpret the result. Solution: We want the height that is equal to the mean minus two standard deviation. Therefore, x = µ + zσ = 69 + (– 2)(3) = 63 We interpret this by saying that a man 63 inches tall has a height two standard deviation below the mean. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.18 Heights in a group of men are normally distributed with mean µ= 69 inches and standard deviation σ = 3 inches. c. Find the height whose z-score is 0.6. Interpret the result. Solution: We want the height that is equal to the mean plus 0.6 standard deviation. Therefore, x = µ + zσ = 69 + (0.6)(3) = 70.8 We interpret this by saying that a man 70.8 inches tall has a height 0.6 standard deviation above the mean. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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**Finding a Normal Value That has a Given Proportion Above or Below It Using Tables**

The following procedure can be use to find the value from a normal distribution that has a given proportion above or below it using Table A.2: Step 1: Sketch a normal curve, label the mean, label the value x to be found, and shade in and label the given area. Step 2: If the given area is on the right, subtract it from 1 to get the area on the left. Step 3: Look in the body of Table A.2 to find the area closest to the given area. Find the z-score corresponding to that area. Step 4: Obtain the value from the normal distribution by computing x = µ + zσ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.19 (Tables) Mensa is an organization whose membership is limited to people whose IQ is in the top 2% of the population. Assume that scores on an IQ test are normally distributed with mean µ = 100 and standard deviation σ = What is the minimum score needed to qualify for membership in Mensa? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.19 (Tables) Step 1: The figure below represents a sketch of the normal curve, showing the value x separating the upper 2% from the lower 98%. Step 2: The area 0.02 is on the right, so we subtract from 1 and work with the area 0.98 on the left. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Example 7.19 (Tables) Step 3: The area closest to 0.98 in Table A.2 is , which corresponds to a z-score of Step 4: The IQ score that separates the upper 2% from the lower 98% is x = µ + zσ = (2.05)(15) = Since IQ scores are generally whole numbers, we will round this to x = 131. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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