2 I. Gymnosperms – do not produce flowers or fruits but do produce seeds. A. Largest groups of gymnosperms are the conifers. Ex: pine treesConifers have 2 types of cones; male and femaleMale cones produce pollen that carry sperm cellsFemale cones produce eggsPollination occurs by the windAfter pollination, the fertilized egg develops into a seedB. Conifers are an important source for building materials and paper products
3 II. Angiosperms – produce flowers, fruits, and seeds and are the most abundant plants on Earth. A. Two main types of Angiosperms; Monocots and Dicots1 seed leaf2 seed leavesParallel veinsBranched veinsFlower parts in 3Flower parts in 4 or 5Vascular bundles scatteredVascular bundles in ringsFibrous RootsTaprootMonocotsDicots
4 B. Pollination occurs mostly by animals (best adaptation!) Many angiosperms have mutual relationships with animals like insects, bats, or birds. As animals gather nectar from flowers, they also transfer pollen from flower to flower. Many species are flower specific- only gather nectar from one type of flower. After pollination and fertilization, seeds develop inside protective fruits.C. Angiosperms are the main source of food for all animals on earth including humans. Rice, wheat, barley, grasses – all are angiosperms. They are also used in medicines, clothing, and other products.
5 Label the picture in your notes using these diagrams. FilamentAntherStigmaStyleOvaryCarpelPetalSepalOvuleStamen
6 III. Why are seed plants more successful than spore producing plants? Gametophyte generation is very tiny (only a few cells) and is protected inside seeds and fruits so the young of seed plants tend to survive better. The spores of ferns and mosses must land in a wet habitat. If they do not, they will die.Sperm does not have to swim thru water- it is carried by wind or animals during pollination. This enables seed plants to live in drier habitats. It also increases reproductive success.