Presentation on theme: "History of Intelligence Tests Psychology. Intelligence The capacity to think and reason clearly, act purposefully and effectively in adapting to the environment."— Presentation transcript:
Intelligence The capacity to think and reason clearly, act purposefully and effectively in adapting to the environment and pursuing one’s goal.
Alfred Binet 19 th century France Laws requiring education for all children Government asked Binet and Theodore Simon to develop a test. Identify students who needed remedial help.
Contribution to Intelligence testing- Assumption: Mental age: intellectual abilities grow year by year the chronological age that corresponds to the difficulty level of the questions a child can answer.
Binet’s beliefs Intelligence is determined mostly by environment children should be provided exercises to help them increase their mental abilities.
Disagreement within the field Lewis Terman: intelligence was largely determined by genetics. Reasonably fixed He revised the original Binet and Simon test for use with American children. Stanford-Binet intelligence test (modern version is used today)
Why did Intelligence test become popular in America? 1.Late 19 th century/early 20 th century…experienced large wave of immigrants. 2.Compulsory Laws were developing 3.WWI…military needed a way of assessing and classifying the new recruits
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Terman and William Stern IQ= MA/CA x 100 Example: A 10-year-old child who could answer questions suited to the average 11-year-old would have an IQ of 11/10 x 100=110
Breakdown of IQ scores 70 (mentally inadequate) 85 (low intelligence) 100 (average) 110 (above average) Mildly Gifted -- 115 to 129 Moderately Gifted -- 130 to 144 Highly Gifted -- 145 to 159 Exceptionally Gifted -- 160 to 179 Profoundly Gifted -- 180
Problems formula Assumption that mental abilities increase a little bit every year. This statement holds true only for children Original Formal does not work for adults Ex. An avg. 20-year-old would have an IQ of 100…20/20 x 100 By age 40 her/his IQ would drop to 50 because her CA has doubled but the MA has stayed the same!
Wechsler intelligence scales David Wechsler (modern IQ test) Developed three tests: children (WISC), preschool(WPPSI), and adult (WAIS) Separate scores for verbal and nonverbal abilities
Achievement vs. Aptitude Tests Achievement test= attempt to measure what the test-taker has accomplished. Aptitude tests= attempt to predict the test-taker’s future performance. Ex. College entrance exam like the American College Test (ACT)