KEY TERMS CONTAINMENT IRON CURTAIN SATELLITE NATION IDEOLOGY SUPERPOWER ARMS RACE TRUMAN DOCTRINE MARSHALL PLAN BERLIN AIRLIFT HUAC BLACKLIST McCARTHYISM KOREAN WAR 38 th PARALLEL PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE
ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR Before World War II, Americans feared communism. The U.S./Soviet Union Alliance was only out of necessity. Stalin and U.S. Military Officials often argued over strategy. (Stalin wanted an invasion of Europe before 1944) Both competed to build the atomic bomb first.
EAST-WEST SPLIT TWO SUPERPOWERS: UNITED STATES AND SOVIET UNION U.S.: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC/FREE- ENTERPRISE CAPITALISM SOVIET UNION: COMMUNISM/TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIP
UNITED STATES PRESIDENTS: HARRY S. TRUMAN (1945-1952) DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER (1953-59) JOHN F. KENNEDY (1960-63)
SOVIET UNION LEADERS: Joseph Stalin (1928-1953) Nikita Kruschev (1955-1964) Lenoid Breshnev (during 1970’s)
THE IRON CURTAIN FALLS ON EUROPE CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR -Soviet Union refuses to live up to wartime promises. - United States makes efforts to stop spread of Communism.
GERMANY DIVIDED Agreement from the Yalta and Potsdam Conference Zones of Occupation: -British Zone -French Zone -U.S. Zone -Soviet Zone
THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM Stalin justified control of Eastern Europe to defend the Soviet Union from historically common attacks from Germany. Stalin instilled communist governments in many of the Eastern European nations. America feared that Western Europe was next.
TRUMAN AND CHURCHILL Truman: “Unless Russia is faced with an iron fist and strong language, another war is in the making.” Churchill: “From Strettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
U.S. POLICY ON COMMUNISM CONTAINMENT (created by American diplomat George F. Kennan) TRUMAN DOCTRINE (1947):$400 MILLION AID TO GREECE/TURKEY MARSHALL PLAN(1948-1951):$13 BILLION AID TO RECOVERING EUROPEAN NATIONS
CRISIS IN BERLIN Berlin was divided into four zones just as Germany. Democratic zones developed and a communist zone, under Soviet control, developed.
SOVIETS BLOCK TRAFFIC June 1948 Stalin ordered the blockade of all roads, railroads, and river traffic into West Berlin. Citizens were cutoff from food and supplies.
TRIMAN ORDERS BERLIN AIRLIFT Air strips were not blockaded. U.S. plan to airlift supplies into Berlin. 7,000 tons of supplies were lifted daily. Airlift last until May 1949 May 12, 1949 Stalin ordered the blockade lifted
NEW ALLINANCES NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization- new military alliance to secure democratic nations (April 1949) WARSAW Pact: military alliance with the communist countries of eastern Europe (1955)
SECOND RED SCARE Soviet Union develops Atomic Bomb in 1949. Increases the concerns for many Americans and fear of communism Communism spread to China when Mao Zedong seized control of China.
FIGHTING COMMUNISM AT HOME House Un-American Activites Committee (HUAC) Investigate mostly communist activities inside the United States. Most famous investigation was Hollywood Ten
MAJOR SPY CASES Alger Hiss, 1948- placed communist in government positions. Klaus Fuchs, 1950- sent atomic bomb info to Soviets. Ethel and Julius Rosenburg, 1951- passed military secrets to the Soviet Union
McCARTHYISM Tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges that government officials were communist. Senator McCarthy accused many government officials of being communist.
THE KOREAN WAR 1945 Yalta Conference: Allies agreed to divide Japanese occupied Korea along the 38 th parallel. Communist North Korea/Democratic South Korea Goal was to reunify the two nations.
THE CRISIS BEGINS June 25, 1950 100,000 N. Korean troops invaded S. Korea. President Truman felt that the U.S. had to take a stand against Communism. North Korea captured the capital city of Seoul.
TRUMAN ORDERS ACTION June 30 Truman orders ground troops into South Korea with the support of 15 other nations. Forces were under command of General Douglas MacArthur
MAC ARTHUR COUNTERS U.S. forces countered the North Koreans with an invasion at Inchon on September 15 th 1950. By October 1 st South Korea was back under control. North Korea responded with Chinese military forces.
THE END FOR MAC ARHTUR By 1951 Mac Arthur wanted to expand the war into China and use atomic weapons. This is where Truman and Mac Arthur differed. Mac Arthur openly challenged the President. Truman fires Mac Arthur in April 1951
FIGHTING ENDS IN KOREA Truman’s efforts for a peace treaty failed. Eisenhower wins 1953 election. Korea looked as it did before the war. 37,000 American troops died.