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**How fast is the butterfly moving? What direction is it moving?**

To describe motion, you must state the direction the object is moving as well as how fast the object is moving. You must also tell its location at a certain time.

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**Choosing a Frame of Reference**

What is needed to describe motion completely? A reference point is a system of objects that are not moving with respect to one another. To describe motion accurately and completely, a reference point is necessary.

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**Choosing a Frame of Reference**

How Fast Are You Moving? How fast the passengers on a train are moving depends on the frame of reference chosen to measure their motion. Relative motion is movement in relation to a reference point. As the train moves past a platform, people standing on the platform will see those on the train speeding by. When the people on the train look at one another, they don’t seem to be moving at all.

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**Choosing a Frame of Reference**

To someone riding on a speeding train, others on the train don’t seem to be moving.

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**Choosing a Frame of Reference**

Which Frame Should You Choose? When you sit on a train and look out a window, a treetop may help you see how fast you are moving relative to the ground. If you get up and walk toward the rear of the train, looking at a seat or the floor shows how fast you are walking relative to the train. Choosing a meaningful frame of reference allows you to describe motion in a clear and relevant manner.

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Measuring Distance How are distance and displacement different? Distance is the length of the path between two points. Displacement is the direction from the starting point and the length of a straight line from the starting point to the ending point.

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Measuring Distance Distance is the length of a path between two points. When an object moves in a straight line, the distance is the length of the line connecting the object’s starting point and its ending point. The SI unit for measuring distance is the meter (m). For very large distances, it is more common to make measurements in kilometers (km). Distances that are smaller than a meter are measured in centimeters (cm).

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**Measuring Displacements**

To describe an object’s position relative to a given point, you need to know how far away and in what direction the object is from that point. Displacement provides this information.

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**Measuring Displacements**

Think about the motion of a roller coaster car. The length of the path along which the car has traveled is distance. Displacement is the direction from the starting point to the car and the length of the straight line between them. After completing a trip around the track, the car’s displacement is zero.

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Assessment Questions A car is driving down the highway. From which reference point does it appear to not be moving? standing at the side of the road a car driving at the same speed but going the opposite direction sitting inside the car an airplane flying overhead

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Assessment Questions A car is driving down the highway. From which reference point does it appear to not be moving? standing at the side of the road a car driving at the same speed but going the opposite direction sitting inside the car an airplane flying overhead ANS: C

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Assessment Questions The SI unit of distance that would be most appropriate for measuring the distance between two cities is the meter. centimeter. kilometer. mile.

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Assessment Questions The SI unit of distance that would be most appropriate for measuring the distance between two cities is the meter. centimeter. kilometer. mile. ANS: C

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**If you walk across town, taking many turns, your displacement is the**

Assessment Questions If you walk across town, taking many turns, your displacement is the total distance that you traveled. distance and direction of a straight line from your starting point to your ending point. distance in a straight line from your starting point to your ending point. direction from your starting point to your ending point.

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**If you walk across town, taking many turns, your displacement is the**

Assessment Questions If you walk across town, taking many turns, your displacement is the total distance that you traveled. distance and direction of a straight line from your starting point to your ending point. distance in a straight line from your starting point to your ending point. direction from your starting point to your ending point. ANS: B

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Assessment Questions You travel 30 miles west of your home and then turn around and start going back home. After traveling 10 miles east, what is your displacement from your home? 20 km 20 km west 40 km 40 km west

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Assessment Questions You travel 30 miles west of your home and then turn around and start going back home. After traveling 10 miles east, what is your displacement from your home? 20 km 20 km west 40 km 40 km west ANS: B

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The speed of an in-line skater is usually described in meters per second. The speed of a car is usually described in kilometers per hour.

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Speed How are instantaneous speed and average speed different? Average speed is computed for the entire duration of a trip, and instantaneous speed is measured at a particular instant.

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Speed Speed is the ratio of the distance an object moves to the amount of time the object moves. The SI unit of speed is meters per second (m/s). Two ways to express the speed of an object are average speed and instantaneous speed.

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Speed Average Speed Sometimes it is useful to know how fast something moves for an entire trip, even though its speed may change during the trip. Average speed, is the total distance traveled, d, divided by the time, t, it takes to travel that distance.

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Speed Calculating Average Speed While traveling on vacation, you measure the times and distances traveled. You travel 35 kilometers in 0.4 hour, followed by 53 kilometers in 0.6 hour. What is your average speed?

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**Total Distance (d) = 35 km + 53 km = 88 km **

Speed Read and Understand What information are you given? Total Distance (d) = 35 km + 53 km = 88 km Total Time (t) = 0.4 h h = 1.0 h

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Speed Plan and Solve What unknown are you trying to calculate? What formula contains the given quantities and the unknown? Replace each variable with its known value.

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**Speed Look Back and Check Is your answer reasonable?**

Yes, 88 km/h is a typical highway speed.

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Speed 1. A person jogs 4.0 kilometers in 32 minutes, then 2.0 kilometers in 22 minutes, and finally 1.0 kilometer in 16 minutes. What is the jogger’s average speed in kilometers per minute?

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Speed 1. A person jogs 4.0 kilometers in 32 minutes, then 2.0 kilometers in 22 minutes, and finally 1.0 kilometer in 16 minutes. What is the jogger’s average speed in kilometers per minute? Answer:

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Speed 2. A train travels 190 kilometers in 3.0 hours, and then 120 kilometers in 2.0 hours. What is its average speed?

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Speed 2. A train travels 190 kilometers in 3.0 hours, and then 120 kilometers in 2.0 hours. What is its average speed? Answer:

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Speed Instantaneous Speed Sometimes you need to know how fast you are going at a particular moment. Instantaneous speed, v, is the rate at which an object is moving at a given moment in time.

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Speed The speedometer in a car measures the car’s instantaneous speed. Note the scale markings are given both in km/h and miles per hour, mph.

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Graphing Motion How can you find the speed from a distance-time graph? The slope of a line on a distance-time graph is speed.

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Graphing Motion A distance-time graph is a good way to describe motion. Slope is the change in the vertical axis value divided by the change in the horizontal axis value. A steeper slope on a distance-time graph indicates a higher speed.

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Graphing Motion

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Graphing Motion

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Graphing Motion

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Velocity How are speed and velocity different? Velocity is a description of both speed and direction of motion. Velocity is a vector.

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Velocity Sometimes knowing only the speed of an object isn’t enough. You also need to know the direction of the object’s motion. Together, the speed and direction in which an object is moving are called velocity.

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Velocity A cheetah’s speed may be as fast as 90 km/h. To describe the cheetah’s velocity, you must also know the direction in which it is moving.

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**Vectors can be used to show changes in motion.**

Velocity Vectors can be used to show changes in motion. Vectors of varying lengths, each vector corresponding to the velocity at a particular instant, can represent motion. A longer vector represents a faster speed, and a shorter one a slower speed. Vectors point in different directions to represent direction at any moment.

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Velocity As the sailboat’s direction changes, its velocity also changes, even if its speed stays the same.

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Assessment Questions A woman jogs 10 kilometers in one hour, stops at a restaurant for one hour, and then walks 10 kilometers in two hours. What is her average speed for the outing? 0.2 km/h 4 km/h 5 km/h 10 km/h

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Assessment Questions A woman jogs 10 kilometers in one hour, stops at a restaurant for one hour, and then walks 10 kilometers in two hours. What is her average speed for the outing? 0.2 km/h 4 km/h 5 km/h 10 km/h ANS: C

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Assessment Questions Lisa plotted time on the x-axis of a line graph and distance on the y-axis. What does the slope of her graph represent? total distance traveled velocity speed displacement

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Assessment Questions Lisa plotted time on the x-axis of a line graph and distance on the y-axis. What does the slope of her graph represent? total distance traveled velocity speed displacement ANS: C

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Assessment Questions Lisa plotted time in seconds on the x-axis of a line graph and distance in centimeters on the y-axis. Her plot showed a straight line from (0,0) to (10, 20). What is the speed? 0.5 cm/s 2 cm/s 10 cm/s 20 cm/s

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Assessment Questions Lisa plotted time in seconds on the x-axis of a line graph and distance in centimeters on the y-axis. Her plot showed a straight line from (0,0) to (10, 20). What is the speed? 0.5 cm/s 2 cm/s 10 cm/s 20 cm/s ANS: B

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Assessment Questions The SI unit for speed of an airplane is miles per hour. True False

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Assessment Questions The SI unit for speed of an airplane is miles per hour. True False ANS: F, kilometers per hour

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